IntroductionToBasicChemistry

IntroductionToBasicChemistry - Introduction to Basic...

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Introduction to Basic Chemistry Matter- anything that has mass (the amount of matter) and occupies space Liquid Solid Gas Chemical elements- chemical substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions Chemical symbols States of Matter Periodic Table Atoms All chemical elements are atoms Analogy- all people are classified as humans atom of hydrogen, atom of carbon, etc. All atoms have similar structure Analogy- all people have similar body structure Major Difference Between Atoms Number of Protons (atomic number) makes each atom unique in its identity Each Atom Will Have a Different Character and Measurable Characteristics Weight (atomic mass) Attraction of electrons Charge Stable or unstable (radioactivity) All these factors determine the type of chemical bonding or interactions with other atoms (elements). Atomic mass (weight) is the mass of the protons and neutrons not the electrons Electronegativity Refers to the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons Determines the nature of the chemical bond Ionic Covalent Ionic Bonds Based of Electronegativity Atomic Charge Determined by the number of electrons in the outer shell (valence) Normal equal numbers of electrons (-) and protons (+) Ion- Charged atom of element
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Stable or Unstable Atom Isotopes- an atom with different numbers of neutrons Isotopes can be Stable or Unstable Unstable isotopes are called radioisotopes Chemical Bonds of Two or More Elements Make Chemical Units (the various things that exist in our environment) Types of Chemical bonds Ionic Bonds Covalent Non-polar Polar Ions Charged Particles Electrolytes-salts that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting electricity Many of the bodies operations are electrical Electrolyte balance is very important in patient care Free Radicals Free radicals- chemical particles with odd numbers of electrons Produced by normal metabolism and exogenous products (carbon tetrachloride, cleaning solvent) and radiation (X-ray, UV light) Damaging to the body Antioxidants- neutralizes free radicals (Vit. C, E, Beta carotene) Antioxidants Antioxidants- neutralizes free radicals (Vit. C, E, Beta carotene) Equal Sharing Important properties of water 1. Excellent solvent solvent- a liquid that a solid is dissolved in solute- the substance that is being dissolved 2. Can participate in chemical reactions 3. Absorbs and releases heat very slowly important is the body to resist temperature fluctuations 4. Requires a large amount of heat to change from a liquid to a gas important in cooling the body from perspiration 5. Servers as a lubricant Characteristics of Water Solvency - the ability to dissolve other chemicals Hydrophillic- substances that dissolve in water
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Hydrophobic- substances that do not dissolve in water
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IntroductionToBasicChemistry - Introduction to Basic...

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