Skeletal System Part I

Skeletal System Part I - Skeletal System Bone or Osseous...

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Unformatted text preview: Skeletal System Bone or Osseous Tissue Connective tissue in which the matrix is hardened by the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals. Mineralization or calcification the hardening of bone. Functions Support Protection Movement Mineral storage and homeostasis calcium and phosphorus Blood production red bone marrow Storage of energy yellow bone marrow contains mostly adipose tissue Electrolyte balancebuffers blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salt Detoxification removes heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood, thus reducing their effects on the nervous and other tissue. Types of Bones Classified into four types according to shape Long Short Flat Irregular Two types classified according to location Sutural (Wormian) bones small bones between joints of cranial bones Sesamoid bones small bones located in tendons (knee caps) Bone According to Structure Compact bone dense osseous tissue Spongy (cancellous) bone loosely organized osseous tissue found at the ends of long bones and in the middle of most others. Diploe ( DIPloee) the spongy layer of bone in the skull that is surrounded by one plates of compact bone on each side. Diploe ( DIPloee) the spongy layer of bone in the skull that is surrounded by one plates of compact bone on each side. Parts of Long Bones Diaphysis the shaft or long main cylindrical portion Epiphysis the ends Metaphysis the region where the diaphysis joins the diaphysis Articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis Periosteum tough white fibrous membrane around the surface of the bone not covered by the articular cartilage consist of dense, irregular connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves that pass into the bones medullary cavity central part of the bone, also called the marrow cavity because it contains the bone marrow. Endosteum the lining of the medullary cavity that consists of osteoprogenitor cells and osteoclasts. Nutrient foramina minute hole through which blood vessels enter the bone. Bone Marrow Soft tissue that occupies the medullary cavity red bone marrow hemopoietic tissue (blood producing) in the child most of the bone marrow is red yellow bone marrow in adults most of the medullary cavities are replaced with yellow bone marrow. red marrow limited to vertebrae, ribs. sternum, part of the pelvic girdle, and the proximal ends of the humerous and femur gelatinous marrow by old age most of the yellow marrow is replaced by this reddish jell. Periosteum Composed of tough outer fibrous layer of collagen some fibers are continuous with the tendons some fibers penetrate into the bone matrix as perforating (Sharpey) fibers anchor the periosteum to the circumferential lamellae inner osteogenic layer of boneforming cells (osteogenic cells) Bone Histology...
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2A taught by Professor Jamesivey during the Spring '06 term at Riverside Community College.

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Skeletal System Part I - Skeletal System Bone or Osseous...

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