SkeletalSystemPart-I - Skeletal System Bone or Osseous...

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Skeletal System Bone or Osseous Tissue Connective tissue in which the matrix is hardened by the deposition of calcium phosphate and other minerals. Mineralization or calcification- the hardening of bone. Functions Support Protection Movement Mineral storage and homeostasis calcium and phosphorus Blood production - red bone marrow Storage of energy yellow bone marrow contains mostly adipose tissue Electrolyte balance-buffers blood against excessive pH changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salt Detoxification- removes heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood, thus reducing their effects on the nervous and other tissue. Types of Bones Classified into four types according to shape Long- Short Flat Irregular Two types classified according to location Sutural (Wormian) bones - small bones between joints of cranial bones Sesamoid bones - small bones located in tendons (knee caps) Bone According to Structure Compact bone- dense osseous tissue Spongy (cancellous) bone- loosely organized osseous tissue found at the ends of long bones and in the middle of most others. Parts of Long Bones Diaphysis - the shaft or long main cylindrical portion Epiphysis - the ends Metaphysis - the region where the diaphysis joins the diaphysis Articular cartilage - thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis Periosteum - tough white fibrous membrane around the surface of the bone not covered by the articular cartilage consist of dense, irregular connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves that pass into the bones medullary cavity - central part of the bone, also called the marrow cavity because it contains the bone marrow.
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Endosteum - the lining of the medullary cavity that consists of osteoprogenitor cells and osteoclasts. Nutrient foramina- minute hole through which blood vessels enter the bone. Bone Marrow Soft tissue that occupies the medullary cavity red bone marrow- hemopoietic tissue (blood producing) in the child most of the bone marrow is red yellow bone marrow- in adults most of the medullary cavities are replaced with yellow bone marrow. red marrow limited to vertebrae, ribs. sternum, part of the pelvic girdle, and the proximal ends of the humerous and femur gelatinous marrow- by old age most of the yellow marrow is replaced by this reddish jell. Periosteum Composed of tough outer fibrous layer of collagen some fibers are continuous with the tendons some fibers penetrate into the bone matrix as perforating (Sharpey) fibers inner osteogenic layer of bone-forming cells (osteogenic cells) Bone Histology Ossious tissue contains a lot of matrix material (intercellular substance) consist of inorganic components (mineral salts) which makes bone hard.
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2A taught by Professor Jamesivey during the Spring '06 term at Riverside Community College.

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SkeletalSystemPart-I - Skeletal System Bone or Osseous...

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