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Lec02 - Special Properties of Water due to Hbonding 1 Its...

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Special Properties of Water due to H- bonding . 1. It’s the UNIVERSAL SOLVENT 2. COHESIVE: water molecules “stick together”. This creates what’s called surface tension on bodies of liquid water. 3. High SPECIFIC HEAT; This means it gains and loses heat S..L..O..W..L..Y.
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Carbon’s Bonding Behavior Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8 Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms
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Types of Reactions Functional group transfer Electron transfer Rearrangement ** Condensation ** Cleavage
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A Word About Chemical Reactions They are either Exergonic (release energy) or Endogonic (gain energy) Most reactions in biological systems are Exergonic Breaking bonds ; releases energy Making Bonds: endergonic ANABOLIC ; TO BUILD CATABOLIC : TO BREAK DOWN
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Condensation Reactions Form polymers from subunits Enzymes remove -OH from one molecule, H from another, form bond between two molecules Discarded atoms can join to form water
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Condensation
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Hydrolysis A type of cleavage reaction Breaks polymers into smaller units Enzymes split molecules into two or more parts An -OH group and an H atom derived from water are attached at exposed sites
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Hydrolysis
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Breaking and Building Molecules: Water In Vs. Water Out! Monomers are smaller molecules, which are “building blocks” for polymers, which are larger molecules. Dehydration synthesis The formation of large polymers by the removal of water. Hydrolysis The breaking up of a larger polymer, into monomers, by splitting up water. This replaces the missing atoms.
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Where Does This Occur in Your Body? Hydrolysis Begins in your month, happens in your stomach and in your small intestines. Dehydration Synthesis This takes place in your cells where most of your molecules are made
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Organic Compounds Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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Each of the macromolecules (organic compound) has building blocks. Be Familiar with these
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Macromolecules Macromolecules Polymers of Polymers of repeating subunits repeating subunits Carbohydrates (Starches and sugars) Carbohydrates (Starches and sugars) Composed of Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen Composed of Carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) (O) Ratio of: C H Ratio of: C H 2 O O Disaccharides Disaccharides (Sucrose) (Sucrose) Monosaccharides Monosaccharides (Glucose (Glucose Polysacchatarides Polysacchatarides (Srch, cellulose, (Srch, cellulose, glycogen) glycogen) This one
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Macromolecules (cont’d) Macromolecules (cont’d) Functions Functions Structural support and barriers
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