Lec05 - DNA DNA: PART II LETS REVIEW MITOSIS AND also COVER...

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DNA DNA: PART II LET”S REVIEW MITOSIS AND also COVER PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
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Organization of the Chromatin Threadlike chromatin = chromosomes = 46 DNA molecules and associated proteins Nondividing state = DNA molecules compacted coiled around core particle (histone protein) zig-zagged, looped and coiled onto itself Preparing to divide DNA copies itself to form 2 parallel sister chromatids
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Discovery of the Double Helix By 1900:components of DNA were known sugar, phosphate and bases By 1953: x ray diffraction determined geometry of DNA molecule Nobel Prize awarded in 1962 to 3 men: Watson, Crick and Wilkins but not to Rosalind Franklin who died of cancer at 37 getting the x ray data that provided the answers.
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Figure 4.4
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Nucleotide Structure DNA = polymer of nucleotides Each nucleotide consist of phosphate group sugar ribose (RNA) deoxyribose (DNA) nitrogenous base in this picture = adenine
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Nitrogenous Bases Purines - double ring guanine adenine Pyrimidines - single ring uracil - RNA only thymine - DNA only cytosine – both DNA bases =CTAG RNA bases = CUAG
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Complementary Base Pairing Nitrogenous bases united by hydrogen bonds DNA base pairings A-T and C-G Law of complementary base pairing one strand determines base sequence of other Segment of DNA
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DNA Function Code for protein synthesis Gene - sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for one protein Genome - all the genes of one person humans have estimated 30- 35,000 genes other 98% of DNA noncoding –
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Chromosomes and Heredity Heredity = transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to offspring karyotype = chart of chromosomes at metaphase 23 pairs homologous chromosomes in somatic cells (diploid number of chromosomes) 1 chromosome inherited from each parent 22 pairs called autosomes one pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y) normal female has 2 X chromosomes normal male has one X and one Y chromosome Sperm and egg (GAMETES) contain only 23 chromosomes fertilized egg has diploid number of chromosomes
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DNA 1. The ENTIRE DNA MOLECULE can Replicate: Then You have 2 from 1 (DNA REPLICATION---Leads to MITOSIS . .one cell goes to two cells . OR
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2A taught by Professor Jamesivey during the Spring '06 term at Riverside Community College.

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Lec05 - DNA DNA: PART II LETS REVIEW MITOSIS AND also COVER...

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