Endocrine I - Introduction To Endocrine Physiology Arnold A...

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Introduction To Endocrine Physiology
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Arnold A Berthold (1803-1861) In one of the first endocrine experiments ever recorded, Professor Arnold A. Berthold of Gottingen did a series of tests on roosters in 1849 while he was curator of the local zoo.
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Ablation and replacement Bethold found that a rooster's comb is an androgen-dependent structure. Following castration, the comb atrophies, aggressive male behavior disappears, and interest in the hens is lost. Importantly, Berthold also found that these castration-induced changes could be reversed by administration of a crude testicular extract (or prevented by transplantation of the testes).
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Claude Bernard (1813-1878) Claude Bernard stated that the endocrine system regulates the internal milieu of an animal. The “internal secretions” were liberated by one part of the body, traveled via the bloodstream to distant targets cells . Circa 1854 Bernard's charge was to demonstrate that medicine, in order to progress, must be founded on experimental physiology.
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Endocrine system maintains homeostasis The concept that hormones acting on distant target cells to maintain the stability of the internal milieu was a major advance in physiological understanding. The secretion of the hormone was evoked by a change in the milieu and the resulting action on the target cell restored the milieu to normal. The desired return to the status quo results in the maintenance of homeostasis
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Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) Brown-Sequard further piqued mainstream scientific interest in the chemical contents of the testes with his famous auto- experimentation. On June 1, 1889, before the Sociète de Biologic in Paris, Brown-Sequard reported that he had increased his physical strength, mental abilities and appetite by self- injection with an extract derived from the testicles of dogs and guinea pigs Although never substantiated, this claim prompted researchers around the world to pursue the new field of organotherapy
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Ernest Henry Starling (1866-1927) Besides "his" law of the heart, Starling discovered the functional significance of serum proteins. In 1902 along with Bayliss he demonstrated that secretin stimulates pancreatic secretion. In 1924 along with E. B. Vernay he demonstrated the reabsorption of water by the tubules of the kidney. He was the first to use the term hormone
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Sensing and signaling Endocrine “glands” synthesize and store hormones. These glands have a sensing and signaling system which regulate the duration and magnitude of hormone release via feedback from the target cell.
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Endocrine vs. Nervous System Major communication systems in the body Integrate stimuli and responses to changes in external and internal environment Both are crucial to coordinated functions of highly differentiated cells, tissues and organs Unlike the nervous system, the endocrine system is anatomically discontinuous.
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The nervous system exerts point-to-point control through
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2B taught by Professor Dianeolin during the Summer '09 term at Riverside Community College.

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Endocrine I - Introduction To Endocrine Physiology Arnold A...

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