Nervous System II - Neurophysiology:Part II Lecture II Lets...

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Neurophysiology:Part II Lecture II
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Let’s Review What does an action potential “spike” look like? When is depolarization, neutralization ? Hyperpolarization? What is happening to ion channels at these times? What is happening the neuron at this time? Compare and contrast the speed of propagation in varying axons with respect to thickness and with respect to myelination. Axonsomatic, axonaxonatic and axondendritic: a diagram.
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NEUROTRANSMITTERS
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Otto Loewi’s Experiment
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Discovery of Neurotransmitters Histological observations revealed gap between neurons (synaptic cleft) Otto Loewi (1873-1961) demonstrated the function of neurotransmitters flooded exposed hearts of 2 frogs with saline Repeatedly stimulated vagus nerve ---Slowed 1st heart slowed removed saline from that 1 st frog heart and transferred it to the second frog heart. The second frog heart decreased its beat. Loewi concluded that the nerve released a chemical --- “vagus substance” later renamed acetylcholine
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Nitric Oxide: The Strangest ………. .Neurotransmitter?!? Nitric oxide (NO) is a gas . It is highly reactive; that is, it participates in many chemical reactions. (It is one of the nitrogen oxides ("NO") in automobile exhaust and plays a major role in the formation of photochemical. In high concentrations this is a poisonous gas! NO is now known to be a neurotransmitter! Huh?? Yup. So, then, what is criteria for neurotransmitter you ask?
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Our Goal Today Is To Attempt to Answer the Following Questions: What is a Neurotransmitter? How are Neurotransmitters classified? How are Neurotransmitters synthesized in the body? Compare and contrast the effects of Neurotransmitters which are one of three : ionotropic, metabotropic or modulatory.
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Generally Speaking…. Neurotransmitters, along with electrical signals, are the “language of the nervous system! More than 50 neurotransmitters have been identified but we know there are over 100 in existence. Released by the PRESYNAPTIC neuron from vesicles, usually, one or two per neuron, but each neuron can receive many kinds. Neurotransmitters are classified chemically and functionally .
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Viagra’s Secret Nitric oxide functions as a signaling molecule that tells the body to make blood vessels relax and widen.
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2B taught by Professor Dianeolin during the Summer '09 term at Riverside Community College.

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Nervous System II - Neurophysiology:Part II Lecture II Lets...

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