Nervous System III - Nervous System The Brain Embryonic...

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Nervous System: The Brain
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Embryonic Development n Nervous system develops from ectoderm q by 3rd week, neural plate becomes a groove with neural folds along each side q by 4th week, neural folds join to form neural tube q lumen of the neural tube develops into central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of the brain q cells along the margin of the neural groove is called the neural crest n develop into sensory and sympathetic neurons and schwann cells q by 4th week, neural tube exhibits 3 anterior dilations
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Embryonic Neural Tube
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Embryonic Brain Development n 4th week q forebrain q midbrain q hindbrain n 5th week q telencephalon q diencephalon q mesencephalon q metencephalon q myelencephalon
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Gross Anatomy of the Brain n FOREBRAIN n Telecephalon: n Cerebral Hemispheres, (cerebral cortex,basal nuclei, amydoloid nucleus) n Diencephalon n MIDBRAIN mesencephalon n HINDBRAIN (RHo mbencephalon) Metencephalon (Pons and cerebellum) Myenlencephalon (Medulla Oblongata)
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n It is estimated that there are 100 billion (100,000,000,000) neurons in the human brain!
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Human Brain Development n The Neuron Connection…. . n At times during brain development, 250,000 neurons are added every minute!! At birth, almost all the neurons that the brain will ever have are present. However, the brain continues to grow for a few years after birth. By the age of 2 years old, the brain is about 80% of the adult size. n You may wonder, "How does the brain continue to grow, if the brain has most of the neurons it will get when you are born?". The answer is …
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Answer… n Glial Cells. Glia continues to divide and multiply n The neurons in the brain also make many new connections after birth. The brain, thus, has PLASTICITY, or NEUROPLASTICITY…a hot topic in neurobiological research today.
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Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid
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Meninges of the Brain
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The Dura Much Adhere n Notice the Crista Galli marked with ***. ***
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Meninges n Dura mater -- outermost, tough membrane q outer periosteal layer against bone q where separated from inner meningeal layer forms dural venous sinuses draining blood from brain q supportive structures formed by dura mater n falx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli q epidural space filled with fat in low back n epidural anaesthesia during childbirth n Arachnoid and pia mater – as in spinal cord q subarachnoid and subdural spaces
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Falx Cerebri n It is narrow in front, where it is attached to the crista galli of the ethmoid ; and broad behind, where it is connected with the upper surface of the tentorium cerebelli . n Its upper margin is convex, and attached to the inner surface of the skull in the middle line, as far back as the internal occipital protuberance ; it contains the superior sagittal sinus . Its lower margin is free and concave, and contains the inferior sagittal sinus .
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n The outermost layer of the meninges, the dura mater , divides the spinal canal into epidural and subdural regions. n
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course AMY 2B taught by Professor Dianeolin during the Summer '09 term at Riverside Community College.

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Nervous System III - Nervous System The Brain Embryonic...

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