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Chap6 - MUSCLES Form is For Function We See This in bones...

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MUSCLES
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Form is For Function We See This in bones when we look at a vertebrae Processes are for attachment of muscles, tendons and ligaments. Openings such as foramen are for nerves and blood vessels.
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We Can See Form For Function In Both The Gross and Microanatomy of Muscles !
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What Functions Do Muscles Provide?
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Basic Physiological Properties 1. Contractility 2. Excitability 3. Extensibility 4. Elasticity These four properties are all involved in Movement
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3. Smooth Muscle: Involuntary peristaltic contractions of digestive tract Vasoconstriction and vasodilation of blood vessels Regulated By A.N.S
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Smooth Muscle Characteristics Has no striations Spindle-shaped cells Single nucleus Involuntary – no conscious control Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs Figure 6.2a
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Skeletal Muscle Characteristics Most are attached by tendons to bones Cells are multinucleate Striated – have visible banding Voluntary – subject to conscious control Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue
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2. Cardiac Muscle: Rhythmic "synchronized" beat Involuntary - regulatable by A.N.S.
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Cardiac Muscle Characteristics Has striations Usually has a single nucleus Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc Involuntary Found only in the heart Figure 6.2b
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Characteristics of Muscles Muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber) Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments All muscles share some terminology Prefix myo refers to muscle Prefix mys refers to muscle Prefix sarco refers to flesh
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Skeletal Muscle Attachments Epimysium blends into a connective tissue attachment Tendon – cord-like structure Aponeuroses – sheet-like structure Sites of muscle attachment Bones Cartilages Connective tissue coverings
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Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle (So as to keep Muscle fibers together) Endomysium – around single muscle fiber Perimysium – around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers Epimysium- The outermost connective tissue Figure 6.1
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Characteristics of Muscles: AND….MYO, MYS and SARCO Muscle cells are elongated (muscle cell = muscle fiber) Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments All muscles share some terminology: Prefix myo refers to muscle Prefix mys refers to muscle Prefix sarco refers to flesh
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Muscle Cell =Muscle Fiber= Myocyte: But BEWARE…ALL Muscles cells are NOT ALIKE!! The myocyte is elongated Their characteristics depend on which type of muscle they are found: skeletal, muscle or cardiac. Which Type of Muscle are we referring to here??
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Th e Ce ll: Called the Muscle Fiber The Muscle Fiber is VERY SPECIALIZED!!!
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