whatiscancer - WHAT IS CANCER? Origin of Word Cancer First...

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WHAT IS CANCER?
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Origin of Word Cancer First coined in the 15th Century by Hypocrites, means crab, used to describe a bunch of diseases that choke out the body.
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WE COULD THINK OF CANCER AS: An ERROR in GENETIC replication. Mitosis GOES ALL WRONG! UNCONTROLLED CELL REPLICATION
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APOPTOSIS Apoptosis- is a type of “cell suicide” which is programmed and involves a series of cellular events. It occurs in cells that are recognized as “abnormal” .
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growth and old cell death are kept in balance. In cancer, this balance is disrupted. This disruption can result from uncontrolled cell growth or loss of a cell's ability to undergo cell suic . What is Cancer?
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Benign: Proliferate without metastasis Only dangerous if they interfere with adjacent tissue function
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Malignant: Cancer Invasive tumors of any part of the body. Spread via blood or lymph Neoplasm
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In cancer cells, the cell membrane glycoproteins are modified so the cells come loose and travel. These cells can adhere to other tissues of the body where their surface receptors find a match for adhesion. A Stickiness Problem? You Mean Like Tape or Glue ?
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What Is Cancer? • Uncontrolled cell growth • Benign: cells similar to the surrounding tissue, enclosed in a membrane, non-spreading • Malignant: capable of invading surrounding structures • Metastasis: spreading of cancer cells (they don’t stick to each other very well)- either through blood or lymph
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The Role of DNA • Human cells have 23 sets of chromosomes • Chromosomes contain genes- code for proteins • Cells reproduce by dividing in two • Mutations: mistakes in the DNA – Base change: change from one base to another – Base insertion/deletion: add/subtract a base
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Mutations and Cancer • Cancer caused by a mutation that deregulates the cell cycle • Allows cells to divide when not necessary • Some mutations keep cells from dying when they are scheduled to
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Progression of a Neoplasm Hyperplasia - Excessive Growth of Cells (usually one mutation suffered) Dysplasia- Abnormal Growth of Cells (new mutation) Carcinoma in Situ- A Cancer Growth That remains in place (additional mutation) Metastasis - Cancerous Growth Gains Ability to Spread
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Characteristics of Cancer Cells IMMORTAL - Rather than terminating after 50 or 60 divisions like normal cells, they keep dividing. Example “Hela Cells” in tissue culture…50+ years and still dividing. LACK CONTACT INHIBITION -Normal cells stop dividing when they become overcrowding because mitosis is inhibited when cells come in contact with others. This is called “ contact inhibition”. Tumor cells have lost ability to sense proper cues and continue to divide forming a mass or tumor. UNSPECIALIZED-
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course HES 1 taught by Professor Dianeolin during the Fall '11 term at Riverside Community College.

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whatiscancer - WHAT IS CANCER? Origin of Word Cancer First...

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