L1.sp11 - CS525 Advanced Distributed Systems Spring 2011...

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Unformatted text preview: CS525 Advanced Distributed Systems Spring 2011 Indranil Gupta (Indy) Lecture 1 January 18, 2011 1 All Slides © IG What is a Distributed System? (examples) The Internet A Sensor Network Gnutella peer to peer system Food Web of Little Rock Lake, WI 2 Can you name some examples of Operating Systems? 3 Can you name some examples of Operating Systems? … Linux WinXP Vista Unix FreeBSD Mac OSX 2K Aegis Scout Hydra Mach SPIN OS/2 Express Flux Hope Spring AntaresOS EOS LOS SQOS LittleOS TINOS PalmOS WinCE TinyOS … 4 What is an Operating System? 5 What is an Operating System? • • • • • User interface to hardware (device driver) Provides abstractions (processes, file system) Resource manager (scheduler) Means of communication (networking) … 6 FOLDOC definition • • • • The low-level software which handles the interface to peripheral hardware, schedules tasks, allocates storage, and presents a default interface to the user when no application program is running. The OS may be split into a kernel which is always present and various system programs which use facilities provided by the kernel to perform higher-level house-keeping tasks, often acting as servers in a client-server relationship. Some would include a graphical user interface and window system as part of the OS, others would not. The operating system loader, BIOS, or other firmware required at boot time or when installing the operating system would generally not be considered part of the operating system, though this distinction is unclear in the case of a roamable operating system such as RISC OS. The facilities an operating system provides and its general design philosophy exert an extremely strong influence on programming style and on the technical cultures that grow up around the machines on which it runs. 7 Can you name some examples of Distributed Systems? 8 Can you name some examples of Distributed Systems? • • • • • • • • Client-server (e.g., NFS) The Internet The Web An ad-hoc network A sensor network DNS BitTorrent (peer to peer overlays) Datacenters 9 What is a Distributed System? 10 FOLDOC definition A collection of (probably heterogeneous) automata whose distribution is transparent to the user so that the system appears as one local machine. This is in contrast to a network, where the user is aware that there are several machines, and their location, storage replication, load balancing and functionality is not transparent. Distributed systems usually use some kind of client-server organization. 11 Textbook definitions • A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single computer [Andrew Tanenbaum] • A distributed system is several computers doing something together. Thus, a distributed system has three primary characteristics: multiple computers, interconnections, and shared state [Michael Schroeder] 12 Unsatisfactory • Why are these definitions short? • Why do these definitions look inadequate to us? • Because we are interested in the insides of a distributed system – – – – algorithmics design and implementation maintenance study 13 I shall not today attempt further to define the kinds of material I understand to be embraced within that shorthand description; and perhaps I could never succeed in intelligibly doing so. But I know it when I see it… [Potter Stewart, Associate Justice, US Supreme Court (talking about his interpretation of a technical term laid down in the law, case Jacobellis versus Ohio 1964) ] 14 A working definition for us A distributed system is a collection of entities, each of which is autonomous, programmable, asynchronous and failure-prone, and which communicate through an unreliable communication medium. • Our interest in distributed systems involves – algorithmics, design and implementation, maintenance, study • Entity=a process on a device (PC, PDA, mote) • Communication Medium=Wired or wireless network 15 A range of interesting problems for Distributed System designers • • • • • • • • • • Routing and Multicast [IP multicast, SRM, RMTP] Post and retrieve [Usenet] Search [BitTorrent, Google] Programming [MapReduce, Pig, Dryad] Storage [Databases, HDFS] Coordination and Scheduling [EC2, [email protected]] Infrastructures [EC2, S3, AppEngine, CCT, OpenCirrus] 16 A range of challenges • • Failures: no longer the exception, but rather a norm • Scalability: 1000s of machines, Terabytes of data • Asynchrony: clock skew and clock drift • Security: of data, users, computations, etc. • 17 Multicast 18 Multicast Node with a piece of information to be communicated to everyone Distributed Group of “Nodes”= Processes at Internet­ based hosts 19 Fault-tolerance and Scalability Multicast sender X X Multicast Protocol Nodes may crash Packets may be dropped 1000’s of nodes 20 Centralized Simplest implementation Problems? UDP/TCP packets 21 Tree-Based e.g., IPmulticast, SRM RMTP, TRAM,TMTP Tree setup and maintenance UDP/TCP packets Problems? 22 A Third Approach Multicast sender 23 Periodically, transmit to b random targets Gossip messages (UDP) 24 Other nodes do same after receiving multicast Gossip messages (UDP) 25 26 “Epidemic” Multicast (or “Gossip”) Infected Infected Protocol rounds (local clock) b random targets per round Gossip Message (UDP) Uninfected Uninfected 27 Properties Claim that this simple protocol • Is lightweight in large groups • Spreads a multicast quickly • Is highly fault-tolerant 28 Analysis From old mathematical branch of Epidemiology [Bailey 75] • Population of (n+1) individuals mixing homogeneously • Contact rate between any individual pair is β • At any time, each individual is either uninfected (numbering x) or infected (numbering y) • Then, x0 = n, y0 = 1 and at all times x + y = n + 1 • Infected–uninfected contact turns latter infected, and it stays infected 29 Analysis (contd.) • Continuous time process • Then dx = − βxy dt (why?) with solution n(n + 1) (n + 1) x= ,y= β ( n +1) t n+e 1 + ne − β ( n +1)t (correct? can you derive it?) 30 Epidemic Multicast Infected Infected Protocol rounds (local clock) b random targets per round Gossip Message (UDP) Uninfected Uninfected 31 Epidemic Multicast Analysis b β= n (why?) Substituting, at time t=clog(n), num. infected is y ≈ (n + 1) − 1 n cb − 2 (correct? can you derive it?) 32 Analysis (contd.) • Set c,b to be small numbers independent of n • Within clog(n) rounds, [low latency] – all but 1 n cb − 2 of nodes receive the multicast [reliability] – each node has transmitted no more than cblog(n) gossip messages [lightweight] 33 Fault-tolerance • Packet loss – 50% packet loss: analyze with b replaced with b/2 – To achieve same reliability as 0% packet loss, takes twice as many rounds • Node failure – 50% of nodes fail: analyze with n replaced with n/2 and b replaced with b/2 – Same as above 34 Fault-tolerance • With failures, is it possible that the epidemic might die out quickly? • Possible, but improbable: – Once a few nodes are infected, with high probability, the epidemic will not die out – So the analysis we saw in the previous slides is actually behavior with high probability [Galey and Dani 98] • Think: why do rumors spread so fast? why do infectious diseases cascade quickly into epidemics? why does a worm like Code Red spread rapidly? 35 So,… • Is this all theory and a bunch of equations? • Or are there implementations yet? 36 Some implementations • Clearinghouse and Bayou projects: email and database transactions [PODC ‘87] • refDBMS system [Usenix ‘94] • Bimodal Multicast [ACM TOCS ‘99] • Sensor networks [Li Li et al, Infocom ’02, and PBBF, ICDCS ‘05] • Usenet NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) ! [‘79] • AWS EC2 and S3 Cloud (rumored). [’00s] 37 NNTP Inter-server Protocol 1. Each client uploads and downloads news posts from a news server 2. Server retains news posts for a while, transmits them lazily, deletes them after a while 38 We’ll cover some of these other implementations during the course • But let’s dwell on the big picture of the course 39 Angles of Distributed Systems Infrastructured D.S.’s e.g., Internet-based Distributed System (D.S.) Theory Non-infrastructured D.S.’s e.g., ad-hoc network based 40 CS 525 and Distributed Systems Peer to peer systems Cloud Computing D.S. Theory Sensor Networks 41 CS 525 and Distributed Systems …DHTs, overlays, Causality, snapshots, consensus,… multicast, design methodologies, … …MapReduce, EC2, … …Smart Dust, TinyOS, Aggregation, 42 In-network processing… Interesting: Area Overlaps Epidemics NNTP Gossip-based ad-hoc routing 43 Interesting: Area Overlaps Do projects with both entrepreneurial + research contributions! The Internet A Sensor Network Gnutella peer to peer system Clouds 44 “Entrepreneurial”? • Proposes new ideas that can be accommodated into a (your own!) startup – Company – Or non-profit • Has to be a marketable product or services to users – Need to write a short Business Plan • You don’t actually need to found a company; you need to develop ideas for it. What you do later with it is up to you only. • To help you get insight into thinking of entrepreneurs, we will see Tidbits from Entrepreneurship case studies throughout the semester • You will also get to study a specific startup (of your 45 choice) and create a Wiki on its technologies! “Research”? • Your project has to be related to distributed systems • It must show keen awareness of the current state of the art in d.s. research, and awareness of the bleeding edge of d.s. research • It must propose and solve thoroughly at least one research problem that arises within your entrepreneurial direction • You will write a conference-quality research paper as a part of your project • We will submit the best papers from this class to top conferences/workshops in the area of distributed systems – Past versions of CS525 highly successful in getting papers into conferences and journals (see course website) • To help you get insight into the current and bleeding edge 46 of d.s. research, we will read 2-3 research papers per class Tidbit: Research vs. Users • Research challenges not always = Reasons why users like your product – Apple I and II (Wozniak and Jobs): Research challenge was to minimize cost of chips in the PC. Users loved Apple II and III because it had color and it had flexibility for users to write their own software (until then, a new game was done in hardware chips!) – Flickr (Caterina Fake): Initially were writing Game Nevernding. Research challenges included scalability. Users loved it because of social network, and tagging. Tagging enabled groups (Squared Circle group), news feeds, and find photos of anything. – TiVo (Mike Ramsay): Initially were writing a network server for video content. Research challenges included disk management, n/w management, security. Users were amazed by pausing live TV and being given significant flexibility but without needing to be a “techie”. – Craigslist (Craig Newmark): has grown organically based on users’ feedback (small company with only few tens of employees; almost a non-profit) • But both research challenges and users are important to address! 47 Materials for Course • The research papers will be available on the course website (you don’t need to buy them) • The Entrepreneurial Tidbits will be covered from the following books (you don’t need to buy them): • “Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days” by Jessica Livingston • “The Intelligent Entrepreneur” by Bill Murphy Jr. • “The Innovator’s Dilemma - When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail” by Clayton 48 M. Christensen Project Buildup • To ensure semester-wide progress, project is structured into systematic stages: – Initial meeting in mid-Fed (+ open office hours) – Survey report due Feb-end (proposal + survey) – Midterm report due Mar-end (first prototype of system built + initial experimental results) – Final report due early May (final version of project and paper) • Project groups: > 1, recommended: 2, could 49 be 3 students if work scaled up Let’s Look at the Course Information Sheet… • No exams • Paper Reading – Presentations (groups of 2) – Reviews (2 out of the 3 papers per lecture, after Feb 10th) – See instructions on website for presentations and reviews • Project – CS525 only class to give students access to multiple testbeds: PlanetLab, Emulab, and Cloud Computing Tesbed (CCT) • Wiki Term Paper – Pick a company, get approved by Indy (see instructions on website), create a wiki on earliest technologies in that company (focus on distributed systems) • Class Participation a must (and fun!) • TA: Brian Cho • My office hours: right after lecture/class (3112 SC) 50 Things for you to do today • Look at the course website • Follow “Schedule / Papers and Presentations link” and read instructions – http://www.cs.uiuc.edu/class/sp11/cs525/ – Need to sign up for a presentation slot by Jan 31 • Take a look at conference papers arising out of previous versions of this course (CS598IG/CS525) – Fall 03: 9/12 project papers in conferences and journals – Fall 04, Spring 06, Spring 07, Spring 08, Spring 09, Spring 10: Many under review in conferences and workshops, similar success rates expected 51 Next Lecture • Cloud Computing – Take a look at all papers on website for that session – Read at least one of those papers completely – Try to read all of them completely – (no reviews required yet) 52 Backup Slides 53 Analysis (contd.) b β= n (why?) Substituting, at time t=clog(n) n +1 y= 1 + ne b − ( n +1) c log( n ) n n +1 ≈ 1 1 + cb −1 n 1 ≈ (n + 1)(1 − cb −1 ) n 1 ≈ (n + 1) − cb − 2 n 54 ...
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