L7.sp11 - CS 525 Advanced Distributed Systems Spring 2011...

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1 1 Indranil Gupta (Indy) Lecture 7 Introduction to Sensor Networks February 3, 2011 CS 525 Advanced Distributed Systems Spring 2011 All Slides © IG
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2 2 A Gram of Gold=How Many Processors? Smallest state-of-the-art transistor today is made of a single Gold atom Still in research, not yet in industry. Pentium P4 contains 42 M transistors Gold atomic weight is 196 ~ 200. 1 g of Au contains 3 X 10^21 atoms => 7.5 X 10^18 P4 processors from a gram of Au => 1 billion P4’s per person CPU speedup ~ √(# transistors on die)
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3 3 Sensor Networks Hype, But do we really need this technology? Coal mines have always had CO/CO2 sensors Industry has used sensors for a long time Today… Excessive Information Environmentalists collecting data on an island Army needs to know about enemy troop deployments Humans in society face information overload Sensor Networking technology can help filter and process this information (And then perhaps respond automatically?)
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4 4 Growth of a technology requires I. Hardware II. Operating Systems and Protocols III. Killer applications Military and Civilian
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5 5 Sensor Nodes Motivating factors for emergence: applications, Moore’s Law (or variants), wireless comm., MEMS (micro electro mechanical sensors) Canonical Sensor Node contains 1. Sensor(s) to convert a different energy form to an electrical impulse e.g., to measure temperature 2. Microprocessor 3. Communications link e.g., wireless 4. Power source e.g., battery
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6 6 Laser diode III-V process Passive CCR comm. MEMS/polysilicon Sensor MEMS/bulk, surface, . .. Analog I/O, DSP, Control COTS CMOS Solar cell CMOS or III-V Thick film battery Sol/gel V 2 O 5 Power capacitor Multi-layer ceramic 1-2 mm Example: Berkeley “Motes” or “Smart Dust” Can you identify the 4 components here?
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7 7 Example Hardware Size Golem Dust: 11.7 cu. mm MICA motes: Few inches Everything on one chip: micro-everything processor, transceiver, battery, sensors, memory, bus MICA: 4 MHz, 40 Kbps, 4 KB SRAM / 512 KB Serial Flash, lasts 7 days at full blast on 2 x AA batteries
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8 8 Examples Spec, 3/03 4 KB RAM 4 MHz clock 19.2 Kbps, 40 feet Supposedly $0.30 MICA: xbow Similar i-motes by Intel
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9 9 Types of Sensors Micro-sensors (MEMS, Materials, Circuits) acceleration, vibration, gyroscope, tilt, magnetic, heat, motion, pressure, temp, light, moisture, humidity, barometric, sound Chemical CO, CO2, radon Biological pathogen detectors [Actuators too (mirrors, motors, smart surfaces, micro-robots) ]
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10 10 I2C bus – simple technology Inter-IC connect e.g., connect sensor to microprocessor Simple features Has only 2 wires Bi-directional serial data (SDA) and serial clock (SCL) bus Up to 3.4 Mbps Developed By Philips
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11 11 Transmission Medium Spec, MICA : Radio Frequency (RF) Broadcast medium, routing is “store and forward”, links are bidirectional
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L7.sp11 - CS 525 Advanced Distributed Systems Spring 2011...

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