podc03 - Scaling Properties of the Internet Graph Aditya...

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Scaling Properties of the Internet Graph Aditya Akella Shuchi Chawla Arvind Kannan Srinivasan Seshan Computer Science Department Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 { aditya,shuchi } @cs.cmu.edu { arvind,srini } @cmu.edu ABSTRACT As the Internet grows in size, it becomes crucial to understand how the speeds of links in the network must improve in order to sustain the pressure of new end-nodes being added each day. Although the speeds of links in the core and at the edges roughly improve accord- ing to Moore’s law, this improvement alone might not be enough. Indeed, the structure of the Internet graph and routing in the net- work might necessitate much faster improvements in the speeds of key links in the network. In this paper, using a combination of analysis and extensive sim- ulations, we show that the worst congestion in the Internet in fact scales poorly with the network size ( n 1+Ω(1) , where n is the num- ber of nodes), when shortest-path routing is used. We also show, somewhat surprisingly, that policy-based routing does not exac- erbate the maximum congestion when compared to shortest-path routing. Our results show that it is crucial to identify ways to alleviate this congestion to avoid some links from being perpetually congested. To this end, we show that the congestion scaling properties of the Internet graph can be improved dramatically by introducing mod- erate amounts of redundancy in the graph in terms of parallel edges between pairs of adjacent nodes. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.2 [ Computer Systems Organization ]: Computer- Communication Networks; C.2.1 [ Computer-Communication Networks ]: Network Architecture and Design General Terms Design, Performance Keywords power-law distribution, congestion, shortest path routing, policy routing 1. INTRODUCTION The Internet grows in size every day. As time progresses, more end-hosts are added to the edge of the network. Correspondingly, to accommodate these new end-hosts, ISPs add more routers and . links. History has shown that the addition of these links maintains the power law properties of the Internet topology [9]. The addition of new end-hosts places a greater load on the network as a whole. Fortunately, the improvement of network technology, operates over the same time period. We expect the network links at the edge and core of the network to improve by a similar performance factor as the growth of traffic over time, since they both typically follow similar Moore’s Law-like technology trends. Unfortunately, due to the topology of the network and behavior of Internet routing, the increase in load may be different on differ- ent links. As a result, it may be necessary for the speed of some hot-spot links in the network to improve much more quickly than others. If this is true, then these parts of the network are likely to eventually become bottlenecks and the network has poor scal- ing properties. In such a situation, we would either need to adjust the routing behavior, remove the power law nature of the topology
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podc03 - Scaling Properties of the Internet Graph Aditya...

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