sensor-route-security - Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor...

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Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures Chris Karlof David Wagner University of California at Berkeley ckarlof,daw @cs.berkeley.edu Abstract — We consider routing security in wireless sensor networks. Many sensor network routing protocols have been proposed, but none of them have been designed with security as a goal. We propose security goals for routing in sensor networks, show how attacks against ad-hoc and peer-to-peer networks can be adapted into powerful attacks against sensor networks, introduce two classes of novel attacks against sensor networks — sinkholes and HELLO floods, and analyze the security of all the major sensor network routing protocols. We describe crippling attacks against all of them and suggest countermeasures and design considerations. This is the first such analysis of secure routing in sensor networks. I. INTRODUCTION Our focus is on routing security in wireless sensor networks. Current proposals for routing protocols in sensor networks optimize for the limited capabilities of the nodes and the application specific nature of the networks, but do not consider security. Although these protocols have not been designed with security as a goal, we feel it is important to analyze their security properties. When the defender has the liabilities of insecure wireless communication, limited node capabilities, and possible insider threats, and the adversaries can use pow- erful laptops with high energy and long range communication to attack the network, designing a secure routing protocol is non-trivial. We present crippling attacks against all the major routing protocols for sensor networks. Because these protocols have not been designed with security as a goal, it is unsurprising they are all insecure. However, this is non-trivial to fix: it is unlikely a sensor network routing protocol can be made secure by incorporating security mechanisms after design has completed. Our assertion is that sensor network routing protocols must be designed with security in mind, and this is the only effective solution for secure routing in sensor networks. We make five main contributions. We propose threat models and security goals for secure routing in wireless sensor networks. We introduce two novel classes of previously undoc- umented attacks against sensor networks 1 – sinkhole attacks and HELLO floods. We show, for the first time, how attacks against ad-hoc wireless networks and peer-to-peer networks [1], [2] can Funded in part by DARPA NEST contract F33615-01-C-1895. 1 These attacks are relevant to some ad-hoc wireless networks as well. be adapted into powerful attacks against sensor networks. We present the first detailed security analysis of all the major routing protocols and energy conserving topology maintenance algorithms for sensor networks. We describe practical attacks against all of them that would defeat any reasonable security goals. We discuss countermeasures and design considerations
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sensor-route-security - Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor...

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