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Unformatted text preview: This Week Moving in circles Angular momentum Spinning at the Olympics Torques Why is a wrench useful? Center of Gravity Useful info for crossing Niagara falls on a wire The New Hubble Telescope Views of Saturn 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 1 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 2 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2009 2 General case of motion In general the motion of an object consists of translation and rotation. Translation we have dealt with in straight line motion A wheel is an excellent example of rotation We define an axis and counterclockwise is positive. One full circle = 360 = 2 π radians Circumference = 2 π R Time for one revolution = 2 π R/v 57.3 v R + 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 3 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2009 3 Rotational Motion Consider an object moving in a circular path. It has velocity, acceleration, kinetic energy and momentum but these are not the simplest variables Displacement we use the angle θ measured in radians Angular velocity ω = ∆θ / ∆ t Angular acceleration α = ∆ω / ∆ t 1 revolution/sec = 2 π radians/sec Since the time for one revolution is 2 π r/v = 2 π / ω then v = r ω so ∆ v = r ∆ω and ∆ v/ ∆ t = r ∆ω / ∆ t and a = r α All parts of a rotating wheel have the same ω but The further from the center the bigger is v θ v R 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 4 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2009 4 Constant angular acceleration Apart from changing variables the equations are identical to linear motion with constant acceleration Displacement d θ Velocity v = ∆ d/ ∆ t ω = ∆θ / ∆ t Acceleration a = ∆ v/ ∆ t α = ∆ω / ∆ t Constant v = v + at ω = ω + α t d = v t + 1/2at 2 θ = ω t + 1/2 α t 2 v 2 = v 2 + 2ad ω 2 = ω 2 +2 αθ d = ½(v + v )t θ = ½( ω + ω )t Once again all variables except time can be positive or negative 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 5 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2009 5 Forces and torques If we apply a force to a bicycle wheel that is free to rotate for a given force it is easier to rotate the wheel the further you are from the axle. In the picture shown below each of the single weights on it’s own will cause the rule to rotate but the two together can be balanced. A force applied to an object, in general makes that object rotate and the action of the force we call a TORQUE and Τ = FL where L is the perpendicular distance to the line of action of the force. Once again + is counterclockwise and – is clockwise and the net torque is sum of all torques. 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 6 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2009 6 Using a wrench In our everyday life we are limited in the force we can apply but if we increase the lever arm we can increase the torque. We can turn a very tight nut by applying a force F at a large radius R If the radius of the nut is r then to just move the nut FR = F f r so if R/r = 30 then F s /F = 30 The work done is the same because in one turn 2 π RF = 2 π rF s F R F f 9/28/2011 Physics 214 Fall 2011 7 9/28/2011...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PHYS 214 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Purdue.
 Fall '08
 Staff
 Angular Momentum, Gravity, Momentum

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