1 THE SQUARE OF OPPOSITION The Square of Opposition Angelica Garcia West Coast University PHIL 341: Critical Reasoning Dr. Burt Stillar August 2, 2020
2 THE SQUARE OF OPPOSITION We may not know how vital categorical logic is in our daily lives. Established by Aristotle in the fourth century, this terminology has become a means of essentially breaking down arguments. According to Critical Thinking, categorical logic means "logic based on the relations of inclusion and exclusion among classes" (Moore & Parker, 2017). In other words, it is used to clarify and analyze deductive arguments. This form of logic is used to break down claims by placing them into categories and converting them into simpler standard-form. (Categorical Logic, 2020). While there are many ways to categorized claims, there are four main types of sentences that can be translated into statements called A, E, I, O claims. Upon interpreting the claims and placing them into their sections, we are then able to use the square of opposition to identify a particular claim. Subsequently, the square of opposition was created to better coordinate such statements, to describe the interaction between each of them, and to determine if the syllogism is correct. (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013). This paper would define and describe important terms and concepts, explain the mechanism behind them, describe the four categories and their interaction with each other, and include an example of how to turn an argument into a standard format claim that can be utilized in the square of opposition to support or refute a statement. Category is a classification or grouping with closely related features, and logic is the analysis of rational and irrational reasoning. Together, categorical logic is the analysis and implementation of the rules of reasoning that applies to a class that comes under the same group. Proposition is a statement that may be true or false. Categorical propositions are proposals which reveal the simplified relation between both a subject and a predicate. The categorical propositions involve four components: a subject, a predicate, a copula, and a quantity expression. Categorical logic is based on the four main standard-forms of categorical propositions which are
3 THE SQUARE OF OPPOSITION A, E, I, O claims. (Introduction to Logic: Translation of Propositions, 2020). Those four types of claims are the universal statement (A), the universal negative statement (E), the particular affirmative statement (I), and the particular negative statement (O). Statements in (A) group are in the form of “All ___ are ___.” Whereas (E) statements occur in the form of “No ___ are ___.” While (I) statements are placed in the form of “Some ___ are ___.” Ultimately, statements in the category (O) are rendered in the form of “Some__are not ___.” Words within the blank spaces are considered terms, which can only be nouns or nouns phrases. In the first blank, it should be the subject term, and in the second blank the predicate term. (Murray & Kujundizic, 2005).
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 7 pages?
- Fall '17
- Burt Stiller
- Logic, west coast university, Moore & Parker