Ch21nuclears_Fall_2011_Fullsize

Ch21nuclears_Fall_2011_Fullsize - 1 Chapter 21 Nuclear...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry 21.1 Radioactivity 21.2 Patterns of Nuclear Stability 21.3 Nuclear Transmutations 21.4 Rates of Radioactive Decay 21.5 Detection of Radioactivity 21.6 Energy Changes in Nuclear Reactions 21.7 Nuclear Power: Fission 21.8 Nuclear Power: Fusion 21.9 Radiation in the Environment and Living Systems 2 Cobalt-60 Radiation Unit (radiation therapy) CT brain scan using Tc-99 (radiotracers) Applications Smoke Detector Nuclear Weapons Nuclear Power Duane Arnold Reactor, Palo, IA 3 1. One substance is converted to another, but atoms never change identity. 2. Orbital electrons are involved as bonds break and form; nuclear particles do not take part. 3. Reactions are accompanied by relatively small changes in energy and no measureable changes in mass. 4. Reaction rates are influenced by temperature, concentration, catalysis, and the compound in which an element occurs. 1. Atoms of one element typically convert into atoms of another element. 2. Protons, neutrons and other particles are involve; orbital electrons rarely take part. 3. Reactions are accompanied by relatively large changes in energy and measurable changes in mass. 4. Reaction rates are affected by number of nuclei, but not by temperature, concentration, catalysis, and the compound in which an element occurs. Chemical Reactions Nuclear Reactions Comparison of Chemical and Nuclear Reactions 4 • A stable nucleus remains intact indefinitely, but the great majority of nuclei are unstable. • An unstable nucleus exhibits radioactivity ; it spontaneously disintegrates or decays. • Protons and neutrons- elementary particles that make up the nucleus are collectively called nucleons • Nuclide- nucleus with a particular composition • Isotopes- same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons An atom the size of the Houston Astrodome would have a nucleus the size of a grapefruit, which would contain virtually all of the atom’s mass. 21.1 Radioactivity 5 radioactivity or radioactive decay = the spontaneous emission of particles or radiation from atomic nuclei nucleon = a proton or neutron nuclide = the nucleus of an atom having a specific atomic number and mass number radionuclide = a nuclide that is radioactive radioisotope = an atom containing a radionuclide Notation: Z A X X = symbol for the particle Z = ch arg e of particle (number of protons) A = mass number or sum of protons and neutrons (mass # ) Definitions 6 Review of the Nucleus •Remember that the nucleus is comprised of the two nucleons: protons and neutrons. •The number of protons is the atomic number. •The number of protons and neutrons together is effectively the mass of the atom. 7 Terms and Notation There are two naturally occurring isotopes of chlorine: Chlorine-35 Chlorine-37 17 35 Cl 17 37 Cl Both isotopes have 17 protons, but different numbers of neutrons ....
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 4:12 taught by Professor Larsen during the Fall '08 term at University of Iowa.

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Ch21nuclears_Fall_2011_Fullsize - 1 Chapter 21 Nuclear...

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