Anthro9StudyGuideFinal

Anthro9StudyGuideFinal - Anthropology 9: Culture and...

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Anthropology 9: Culture and Society Study Guide Sex: features of human biology and characteristics of physical bodies (e.g. different genitalia, hormonal, and chromosomal differences and different shaped bodies Sexuality: an individual’s experiences, meanings, and practices in relation to sexual activity (e.g. sexual orientation, desires, ideas and reproduction, intimacy, etc.) Gender: culturally assigned behaviors and meanings attributed to the distinction all human societies make between male and female, and sometimes to a 3 rd gender Sex and Temperament (Mead): Sex and Temperament (MEAD): “A human being is born into the world with tendicies which man be developed in very various directions and it may well be that different individual have different potentialities.” “The culture into which an individual is born stresses certain of his potentialities and suppresses others, and it acts selectively…” A fter a  field trip to Nebraska in 1930 to study the Omaha Native Americans, she and her  husband, Reo Fortune, next headed to the Sepik region of Papua New Guinea for two  years. While there Mead did pioneering work on gender consciousness. She sought to  discover to what extent temperamental differences between the sexes were culturally  determined rather than innate. She described her findings in  Sex and Temperament in  Three Primitive Societies (1935) and explored the subject more deeply in the next  decade with  Male and Female  (1949). M ead found a different pattern of male and female behavior in each of the cultures she  studied, all different from gender role expectations in the United States at that time. She  found among the  Arapesh  a temperament for both males and females that was gentle,  responsive, and cooperative. Among the  Mundugumor  (now Biwat), both males and  females were violent and aggressive, seeking power and position. For  the  Tchambuli  (now Chambri), male and female temperaments were distinct from each  other, the woman being dominant, impersonal, and managerial and the male less  responsible and more emotionally dependent. While Mead's contribution in separating  biologically-based sex from socially-constructed gender was groundbreaking, she was  criticized for reporting findings that seemed custom-made for her theory. For Mead,  each culture represented a different type within her theory, and she downplayed or  disregarded information that may have made her simple classifications untenable. I
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course ANTHRO 9 taught by Professor Yan during the Fall '08 term at UCLA.

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Anthro9StudyGuideFinal - Anthropology 9: Culture and...

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