StudyGuide - GEOL 130 MII Review Sheet I. Changing...

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GEOL 130 MII Review Sheet I. Changing understanding of astronomy: Earth’s place in space A. Greek Science a. Flat earth at the center of universe to spherical Earth at center of the universe. a.i. Observations supported that earth is a sphere a.i.1. Sun rises in the east a.i.2. Eclipses occur at different times a.i.3. Stars appear and disappear in both EW and NS directions a.i.4. High objects on earth gradually disappear from bottom to top as we move away from them a.ii. Observations supporting earth is stationary a.ii.1. No evidence of motion (1,000 mph due to rotation and 70,000 mph if moving around the sun). a.ii.2. No evidence of force making earth move (rock analogy). a.ii.3. Objects on earth move up or down and don’t fall down behind us (as if earth was moving) a.ii.4. No stellar parallax observed a.iii. Earth is at center of universe a.iii.1. If it is a sphere and stationary then a.iii.1.a. It looks as if it is at center of universe a.iii.1.b. All “earth elements” move towards center of universe. b. The “Principles” pre-1600 (really philosophical beliefs) b.i. Principles of motion: All objects in motion will stop, unless something keeps the object in motion. b.ii. Principle of circular motion: b.ii.1. In contrast to motion principle, planets and stars constantly move. b.ii.2. Do so to emulate perfection in the heavens, and do so by moving in “perfect” circles. b.ii.3. Aether also believed to have natural circular motion iii. The above “principles” and previous observations led to geocentric astronomical worldview best summarized by Ptolemy. B. Earth’s place in the solar System a. Aristotle (Ptolemy): Believed that earth was at the center, planets (and sun) move around that earth. a.i. Planets, sun, moon, and stars made of aether a.ii. Natural motion of aether is in circles a.iii. Epicycles due to circles on circles a.iv. Stars on rotating sphere a.v. Why would you believe Ptolemy?
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a.v.1. It explained all known astronomical observations and “principles” at the time and did so better than any other existing model. a.v.2. It made good and useful predictions. a.v.3. It meshed with other paradigms and was even pleasing to those with Christian beliefs. b. Copernicus: Sun at center, planets (and earth) move around sun. b.i. Perfectly circular orbits b.ii. Stars still on rotating sphere b.iii. Predicted location of planets from Copernicus’ model isn’t better than Ptolemy (because of circular orbits) b.iii.1. The sidereal period is the time that it takes the object to make one full orbit around the sun, relative to the stars. The synodic period is the time it takes for the object to reappear at the same point in the sky, relative to the sun, as observed from Earth; i.e. returns to the same elongation and planetary phase.
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course GEOL 130Lxg at USC.

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StudyGuide - GEOL 130 MII Review Sheet I. Changing...

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