StudyGuide8 SS10

StudyGuide8 SS10 - BSCI105, Section 0111 Summer 2010 Study...

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BSCI105, Section 0111 Summer 2010 Study Guide #8 I. Enzymes and Metabolism Vocabulary: Metabolism Anabolic Catabolic Pathway Kinetic energy Potential energy Free energy Enthalpy Entropy Coupling ATP Enzyme Catalyst Activation energy Substrate Active site Induced fit Enzyme-substrate complex Cofactor Inhibitor Allosteric Activator Cooperativity Feedback Key Concept 1: "Metabolism" is a general terms for every anabolic and catabolic process a cell or organism, involving numerous interacting pathways that store, transform, and use energy. Key Concept 2: "Energy" is the capacity to do work, represented in a system as either kinetic or potential energy, and can be used to increase local order (decrease entropy), and can be liberated by a reduction in local order (increased entropy). Key Concept 3: "Free energy" is the net energy available to do work, after subtracting the energy lost to entropy in any reaction, represented by the term delta G which can be negative or positive. Key Concept 4: A reaction with a POSITIVE delta G is endergonic, requiring an input of energy to proceed, and creates products with higher free energy than the reactants. Key Concept 5: A reaction with a NEGATIVE delta G is exergonic, yielding free energy, and can proceed spontaneously. Key Concept 6: The equilibrium concentration of reactants and products is proportional to the delta G of a reaction, with negative delta G values favoring the accumulation of products. Key Concept 7: Enzymes are biological catalysts that lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction, making it more likely to proceed. Key Concept 8: Enzymes are usually proteins that have a specific shape (conformation) favoring interaction with specific substrates (reactants) that generate a conformational change (induced fit) in the enzyme-substrate complex resulting in generation of products.
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Key Concept 9: The activity of an enzyme is sensitive to changes in environmental variables that disrupt protein structure, such as temperature and pH, and the amino acid sequence of an enzyme is adapted for stability under "normal" physiological conditions, which vary among organisms. Key Concept 10: The activity of enzymes can be regulated to control entire pathways through allosteric effectors (inhibitors or activators), feedback regulation, covalent modifications, and competitive inhibition. Key Concept 11: The predominant energy carrier in cells is ATP, which transfers energy in coupled reactions through substrate phosphorylation. II. Cellular Respiration Vocabulary: Aerobic Anaerobic Oxidation Reduction Redox NAD NADH Electron transport chain Substrate-level Oxidative Glycolysis Net yield Glucose Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Kreb's cycle Citric acid cycle Oxaloacetate Citrate NADH FAD FADH2 Complex I-IV Ubiquinone Cytochrome c Electron acceptor ATP synthase Chemiosmosis Proton motive force Gluconeogenesis
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StudyGuide8 SS10 - BSCI105, Section 0111 Summer 2010 Study...

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