5_kotz reactions in aqueous solution lecture

5_kotz reactions in aqueous solution lecture - 1 Reactions...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions What are some of the driving forces that promote reactivity? Reaction Type: Driving Force Precipitation Formation of an insoluble compound Acid-Base Neutralization Formation of a salt and water (proton transfer) Gas-Forming Evolution of water-insoluble gas such as CO 2 Oxidation-Reduction Electron transfer Hydrated Ion Solubility: What is the relative attraction of the particles in the compound for each other vs. water? Showing the hydration process The double arrow signifies the partial dissociation of the acetic acid Compounds of hydroxide are mostly insoluble in water: (From Left to Right): NaOH, Ca(OH) 2 , Fe(OH) 3 , Ni(OH) 2 Later you will be quantifying the solubility using solubility product values 2 Precipitation Reactions (Double displacement; metathesis) Net Ionic Equations: Leave out spectator ions Total Ionic Equation Net Ionic Equation Example Problem: In an experiment, a solution containing 2.500g of sodium chromate (161.97g/mol) is mixed with a volume of a solution containing 3.250g of Ferric chloride (162.20g/mol). a) Determine the precipitate of the reaction. b) Write molecular, complete ionic and net ionic equations for the reaction. c) Determine the maximum mass of precipitate that can be formed in the reaction. Answer: a) The precipitate is Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 (ferric chromate) b) 3Na 2 CrO 4(aq) + 2FeCl 3(aq) Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3(s) + 6NaCl (aq) 6Na + (aq) + 3CrO 4 2- (aq) + 2Fe 3+ (aq) + 6Cl- (aq) Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3(s) + 6Na + (aq) + 6Cl- (aq) 2Fe 3+ (aq) + 3CrO 4 2- (aq) Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3(s) c) 2.500g / 161.97g/mol = .0153mol Na 2 CrO 4 3.250g/162.20g/mol = .02004mol FeCl 3 Since the reaction is 3:2 (Na 2 CrO 4 :FeCl 3 ), Na 2 CrO 4 limits .0153mol Na 2 CrO 4 (1mol Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 / 3mol Na 2 CrO 4 ) = .005145mol .005145mol (459.671g/mol) = 2.365g Fe 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 precipitate Acids and Bases Acids:-Produce CO 2 gas with metal carbonates-React with metals to produce hydrogen gas.-A substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions, H + , in the solution. (Hydrolysis with water to produce hydronium ions, H 3 O + )-The strength of an acid is related to its ability to dissociate in solution (i.e. produce H + ions)-The common strong acids should be memorized: HCl, HBr, HI, H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , HClO 4 Bases:-A substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH- , in the solution-Either metal hydroxides or substances (like NH 3 ) that produce OH- indirectly in solution.(NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH- )-The common strong bases should be memorized: NaOH, KOH, LiOH, RbOH 3 Oxides of nonmetals (acidic anhydrides) tend to produce acids in water: Ex....
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5_kotz reactions in aqueous solution lecture - 1 Reactions...

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