AP Chapter 11 Outline b - AP Chemistry Chapter 11 Outline:...

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AP Chemistry Chapter 11 Outline: States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces Part II AP Chapter 11 Outline b.doc Substances are dependant upon intermolecular attractions to hold them in their liquid and solid phases. Gases can be condensed by increasing the pressure on them or lowering their temperature. There are three major types of intermolecular attraction (from weakest to strongest): London forces (induced dipoles) - caused by the temporary distortions of the electron clouds around their nuclei. Seen in nonpolar bonds and molecules in which the polarity cancels out due to the symmetry of the molecule. These types of bonds are very common in hydrocarbons. Two things should be noted: a. The longer the carbon chain, the higher the boiling point. The structures entangle like spaghetti. b. For structural isomers with a particular number of carbons, the greater the number of branches, the lower the boiling point. In general, the larger the electron cloud, the greater the polarization and the stronger the intermolecular attraction. Permanent dipoles - fixed polarity caused by the electronegativity differences between two bonding atoms. Seen in molecules with nonbonding electron pairs and those that contain nonsymmetrical arrangements of atoms. Hydrogen bond
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Feebeck during the Fall '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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AP Chapter 11 Outline b - AP Chemistry Chapter 11 Outline:...

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