AP Kotz Chapter 8 Outline

AP Kotz Chapter 8 Outline - AP Chemistry Chapter 8 Outline...

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AP Chemistry Chapter 8 Outline – Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism Elements that contain unpaired electrons exhibit a property known as paramagnetism . Paramagnetic materials are attracted to external magnets because the magnetic field produced by the "spinning" unpaired electron is not cancelled by the antiparallel opposite spin of another electron. Elements in which all the electrons are paired are known as diamagnetic and are not attracted to magnets (most are actually slightly repulsed by magnets). A third type of electron spin orientation is known as ferromagnetic . These are substances (including iron, nickel, cobalt, neodymium and certain alloys) that have all their spins aligned in small clusters of atoms within the substance that are known as domains. These are typically the types of materials that are known as permanent magnets. The energy levels of the hydrogen atom vs a many-electron atom (see diagram below). Representing the Electrons in an Atom Spectroscopic Notation: A short-hand notation has been developed to represent the electrons in a given atom. An example might be 1s 2 , 3p 4 , or 4d 3 , and so on. The co-efficient number refers to the principal quantum number n, the letter corresponds to the azimuthal quantum number l , and the superscript designates how many electrons exist in that particular orbital. For instance, the electrons of the lithium atom (as represented in spectroscopic notation ) are:
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1s 2 2s 1 Lithium has 2 electrons in the s-orbital of the 1st energy level and 1 electron in the s-orbital of its second energy level. This brings up a point about which orbitals are allowed in a particular energy level. Each energy level can have the following orbital values (which you should be able to see why from the quantum numbers listed earlier) n = 1 s n = 2 s, p n = 3 s, p, d n = 4 s, p, d, f n = 5 s, p, d, f, g Each new energy level builds one more new orbital from the previous one. To complicate matters even further, in a many electron atom, because of the interaction between the electrons (the shielding effect ) and the nucleus ( effective nuclear charge Z * ), the energy levels overlap one another in such a way that the increase in energy for those atoms are: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p Note that even though the 3d sublevel is higher in energy than the 4s, when writing spectroscopic notation, energy levels are grouped together by n number, not by the increase in energy. As an example of this Arsenic (As) would be written as 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 3 instead of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 3 Condensed Spectroscopic Notation Another way to represent the electron configuration of an atom is called condensed spectroscopic notation .
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AP Kotz Chapter 8 Outline - AP Chemistry Chapter 8 Outline...

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