Aqueous solutions - 3 Major types of reactions in aqueous solutions-Acid-Base Reactions-Precipitation Reactions(double

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3 Major types of reactions in aqueous solutions: -Acid-Base Reactions -Precipitation Reactions (double displacement) -Oxidation-Reduction (not limited to aqueous reactions) Solutions: Electrolyte: NaCl (s) + H 2 O → Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Electricity Flows Ions are charge carriers Non-electrolyte: C 12 H 22 O 11(s) + H 2 O → C 12 H 22 O 11(aq) Electricity does not flow sucrose does not “dissociate” into charge carrying ions. Electrolyte vs nonelectrolyte video clip Arrhenius’s Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation Certain substances dissociate into cations (+) and anions (-) when they dissolve in water.
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Nonelectrolytes, strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes are determined by their ability to dissociate in solution. It is mostly soluble ionic compounds and “strong” acids that constitute strong electrolytes (see solubility table and strong acid chart). Strong vs Weak electrolyte video clip Example (4.1a): Seawater is essentially 0.438M NaCl and 0.0512M MgCl 2 , together with several other minor solutes. What are [Na + ], [Mg 2+ ] and [Cl - ] in water? Strong vs Weak Acids and bases:
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Acids produce hydronium, H 3 O + (sometimes represented with just H + ), ions in solution 2 2 2
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Some acids will go through multiple ionization phases, but they get progressively weaker with each proton lost. Ex. H 2 SO 4 Acid nature video clip Strong bases tend to be alkali metal hydroxides and some of the alkaline earth metal hydroxides. Weak bases tend to be less soluble hydroxides and organic bases including the amine functional group. Strong Acid HCl (aq) → H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Weak Acid HF (aq) ↔ H + (aq) + F - (aq) Strong Base Ca(OH) 2(s) → Ca 2+ (aq) + 2OH - (aq) Weak Base CH 3 NH 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) ↔ CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Neutralization reactions between a acids and bases General formula: Acid + Base → Salt + Water The “net” ionic equation only lists the components of the reaction that take part in the reaction itself (i.e. it excludes spectator ions) The net ionic equation for all strong acid/base neutralizations is H + (aq) + OH - (aq) → H 2 O (l) Exercise 4.2: Calcium hydroxide is used to neutralize a waste stream of
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Feebeck during the Fall '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Aqueous solutions - 3 Major types of reactions in aqueous solutions-Acid-Base Reactions-Precipitation Reactions(double

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