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Unformatted text preview: 1 Gas Laws MDI corporation prototype for vehicle that runs on compressed air. Explores the relationships between: Volume, V Temperature, T Amount (moles), n Pressure, P Pressure Pressure is defined as force per unit area: P = F/A In physics, the unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa) and is equal to 1N/m 2 . Other units of pressure: Atmosphere: The average pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the Earth at sealevel (atm) Torr: Unit of pressure based on the mercury barometer (torr). 1atm = 760torr = 101,300Pa Mercury Barometer The atmospheric pressure pushes the mercury column up 760mm, before the weight (Force) of the column down per unit area is equal to the upward pressure (Note the vacuum above the Hg column in the tube) 1mmHg = 1torr Pressure Units Summary: 1atm = 760mmHg (torr) = 101,300Pa = 101.3kPa (also 29.92Hg, 1.013bar, 14.7psi) Measuring Sample Gas Pressure Openend Manometer (Manawmahter) Closedend Manometer Vacuum. The height of the Hg column only depends on the sample gas pressure 2 Three Relationships Boyles Law Boyles Law Boyles Law Boyles Law PV = constant (n, T kept constant) Inverse Relationship P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Charles's Law Charles's Law Charles's Law Charles's Law V/T = constant (n, P kept constant) Direct Relationship V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 Avogadro's Law Avogadro's Law Avogadro's Law Avogadro's Law V/n = constant (T, P kept constant) Direct Relationship V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2 Boyles Law Relationship Combined Gas Law: PV/nT = constant (T in Kelvins) 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 PV PV n T n T = Avogadros Hypothesis: Equal volumes of gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure have equal numbers of particles (either molecules or atoms depending on the composition of the gas). V n at constant P and T Ideal gas Law: PV = nRT R = .0821L atm/mol K Standard Molar Volume Standard Molar Volume Standard Molar Volume Standard Molar Volume: At standard temperature and pressure ( STP = 1atm and 273.15K) 1 mole of any ideal gas has a volume of 22.4L Variations on the ideal gas law equation: PV = mRT/M (m = sample mass, M = molar mass of the gas) M = mRT/PV d = MP/RT (d = density of the gas in g/L) Stoichiometric Relationships 3 Gas Mixtures and Daltons Law of Partial Pressures Daltons Law of Partial Pressures: Daltons Law of Partial Pressures: Daltons Law of Partial Pressures: Daltons Law of Partial Pressures:...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 100 taught by Professor Feebeck during the Fall '10 term at Purdue UniversityWest Lafayette.
 Fall '10
 Feebeck
 Mole, pH

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