Organic Lecture Kotz

Organic Lecture Kotz - Organic Chemistry The Chemistry of...

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1 Organic Chemistry: The Chemistry of Carbon Compounds Diversity of Carbon Creates four bonds Can create multiple bonds (double, triple) Valence electrons close to nucleus Ability to “string together” into long chains High stability (high bond energies) Variety of geometries possible Isomers Structural : Same formula, different structure Isomers Stereoisomers : Same formula with similar attachments but different orientations. Geometric isomers : Note that carbons are not free to rotate around double bond. Isomers Optical isomers : Nonsuperimposable mirror image (termed chiral ; Pairs of chiral molecules are called enantiomers ) Molecules cannot be rotated to be the same Chiral molecules can rotate plane polarized light (levorotary (levorotatory), dextrorotary (dextrorotatory) Examples: Lactic Acid, alanine (amino acid) and simple sugars sugars glucose (dextrose) and fructose (levulose)
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2 Hydrocarbons - Alkanes Hydrocarbons: Containing only carbon and hydrogen Alkanes: Consisting of only single-bonded atoms (saturated) General Formula (C n H 2n+2 ) Alkane Nomenclature The name of an alkane is dependant upon the number of carbons in the chain using the following prefixes: # carbons Prefix 1M e t h 2E t h 3P r o p 4B u t 5 Pent Melting and boiling point increase with increased chain length 6H e x 7H e p t 8O c t 9 non 10 dec The suffix "ane" is added to designate the molecule as an alkane. Often times you will find shorter branches of carbons off of the longest (main or parent) chain. These branches are known as alkyl groups, branches or substituents . They are named using the same prefixes as before but using -yl as a suffix on the name. Naming Branched Chain Alkanes 1. Find the longest continuous chain of hydrocarbon (remember that they may bend around corners). This is your parent chain. 2. Number the parent chain beginning from the end closest to the first branch. 3. Identify the alkyl groups and the carbon number on the parent chain they are attached to. 4. List the alkyl groups in alphabetical order and the number where the attachment occurs. (Separate numbers from words with hyphens). 5. Finally, list the parent name.
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Organic Lecture Kotz - Organic Chemistry The Chemistry of...

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