ThermodynamicsSummary07 - AP Chemistry Thermodynamics...

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AP Chemistry Thermodynamics Summary Terminology: Spontaneity : The notion of whether or not a process can take place unassisted. Entropy : A measure of how energy is spread out among the atoms and molecules of a system. Free Energy : A thermodynamic function that relates enthalpy and entropy to spontaneity. Thermodynamics: -Determines if a process is possible and spontaneous and the equilibrium state of the system (how far the reaction will proceed) -Kinetics determines the rate of the process. Review of Thermochemistry For Pressure-Volume Work Δ U = q + P Δ V Δ U is the internal energy change of the system q p = Δ U - P Δ V (at constant pressure) q p = Enthalpy change = Δ H (negative = exothermic; positive = endothermic) Reaction spontaneity: Driven by two factors Enthalpy Δ H (heat of the reaction) Spontaneity is favored by exothermic (- Δ H) Entropy, S related to energy distribution within a system (the availability and occupation of energy states that is usually akin to the measure of “disorder” in a system). Spontaneity favored by increase in entropy (+ Δ S) Reversible processes are in equilibrium Spontaneous processes are not reversible Enthalpy and entropy are both “state functions” Entropy is the basis for the second law of thermodynamics (Sadi Carnot – 1820’s) Factors that increase the entropy of a system: Phase change Solid<Liquid<Gas (Randomness of particles and separation) Nonelectrolyte solutions of solids or liquids in a solvent (random mixing of particles) A reaction that increases the molecules of a gas A substance is heated The number of atoms in a substance (greater vibrational modes)
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ThermodynamicsSummary07 - AP Chemistry Thermodynamics...

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