Hamad_Bothina_UJordan - Education and Research in Jordan,...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Education and Research in Jordan, Education Challenges & Outlook Bothina Hamad , Ph.D. Physics Department University of Jordan rd, MCC, August, 3rd, , 2006 2006 Jordan: A Quick Introduction Jordan: Population: About 5.25 Millions Famous sites : Petra : 3 hours south Amman Petra Wadi Rum : 4 hours south Amman Wadi Aqaba : 4 hours south Amman Aqaba Jerash : 1 hour north Amman Climate: Special climate, cool for most Climate: summer days and rainy in the winter time with many spectacular sunny days. Language: Arabic is the official language. English is the second language and is spoken throughout the country. throughout Education In Jordan Education is one of the most important things that the Education Jordanian government and people care about. Jordanian Jordanian people believe strongly in Education and they think that is the key for the future. Most of the Jordanians would do anything to send their Most kids to school and then off to the universities. The Education system in Jordan is one of the best The systems in the Middle East region. It concentrates a lot on the person and it tries to take care of the children to put them on the right start. Higher Education Higher Eight public universities with 80,000 students. Eight students. Twelve private universities with 30,000 students. Twelve 30,000 Twenty one community colleges with 29,000 students. Twenty students. 25% of total recurrent costs are recovered in the public sector. sector. Spending on education relative to GNP is greatest in the Spending GNP greatest Arab world. Arab 1/3 of educational expenditure is given to higher 1/3 education. education. • Jordan University • Yarmouk University • Science & technology University •Al Al-Bayt University • Heshemea University • Al Balqa University •Mu’uta University •Ma’an University The University of Jordan The Competence & Excellence UJ in Brief : UJ Established in 1962, UJ is the leading and the oldest 1962 UJ institution of higher education in Jordan. It is often referred to as the “mother” university. referred university. UJ started with the Faculty of Arts with 167 students 167 enrolled & 5 faculty members. enrolled Today, it has 18 academic faculties, two deanships 18 academic two (research and student affairs), 11 centers, and many (research 11 centers and other facilities, including an excellent library. The number of faculty members stands at about 1200 at number 1200 present. It has a student population, at both the graduate and It undergraduate levels, of about 38,000. Undergraduate undergraduate 38,000 Undergraduate students: 34,000 & Graduate students: 4,000. students: Graduate 4,000 UJ began with the year system. In 1972-73 it switched to the credit-hour system. It was the first in the Arabto World to do so. The faculties of Medicine, and World Dentistry are the only exceptions. Location Location It is located in Amman (the white city), the capital of Jordan, a city of about 2 million people. Like million Rome, originally established on 7 hills. hills Amman One-Campus University One-Campus UJ prides itself on the beauty of its oneUJ campus university. Nestled on a spacious campus area of 120 Ha (1,200 dunums) , the landscape is composed of flat ground and mild slopes covered with evergreen pines, elms and olive trees. Status Status UJ is a “public” university: it is semiindependent, neither totally state-run or independent, supported, nor privately endowed or invested. UJ is, at once, national, regional, and UJ international. international. Undergraduate Programs 1. Regular Program: the Unified Coordination Admission Bureau: coordinates general admission for all public universities in the Kingdom according to the regulations of the Higher Education Council. 2. Parallel Program: for students with nonJordanian nationalities/certificates, or for the students who were not accepted through the Regular Program. Graduate Programs Masters Program: There are two tracks for the Master's degree (36 credit hours): 1. 1. Non-thesis track, in which students must pass a comprehensive Non-thesis exam after successfully finishing the courses required by the program's Study Plan. program's Master's thesis track: requires the student, in addition to Master's successfully finishing the courses required by the Study Plan, to conduct research, and subsequently submit and defend a Master's thesis. thesis. The maximum period is 6 semesters in both tracks. TOEFL is required. TOEFL Graduate Programs 2. 2. Ph.D. Program: Maximum of 10 semesters. Maximum 10 54 credit hours (36 hours courses, 18 hours thesis) 18 Qualifying Exam TOEFL Required Faculty members Faculty • The majority of the faculty members are USA and Europe graduates. Some are UJ graduates . • They are chosen in standards of high merits. Teaching duties Teaching Rank Hours per week Assistant Professor 12 hours 12 Associate Professor 12 hours 12 Full Professor 9 hours hours Distribution of Faculty Members at UJ 58% 42 % Humanities & Social Sciences Scientific Faculties A) Overall Gender Distribution of Faculty Members at UJ Faculty 18% 82% Male Female Students Body Students UJ is proud of choosing the top students in UJ Jordan with high academic achievement and excellence. excellence. Strong international presence: more than 77 Strong 77 countries represented on campus, and over 12% are international students. 12% Diverse students: varieties from the country, Diverse the region, and the globe. Gender, ethnic, race diversity. race A) Overall Gender Distribution of Students at UJ Students 40% 60% Male Female B) Gender Distribution of Students B) Scientific Faculties 52% 48% Humanities and Social Sciences 67% 33% Male Female Gender Distribution of Graduate Students at UJ UJ 44% 56% Male Female Faculty of Science Established in 1965 by departments of Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biological Sciences with 112 students and 5 faculty members. present student enrollment reached more than 2000 undergraduate as well as about 321 graduate students, and 121 faculty members. In 1973, the Department of Geology was added . Department of Computer Science in 1982 that becomes King Abdullah II School for Information Technology in 2000. In 2002, the Mathematics department added an Actuarial science program. In 2004, the Biology department added a Medical analysis program. Physics Department Physics The Department has 26 Faculty members engaged in teaching The 26 of about 350 students. 350 Research in the Physics Department: Experimental Physics: • Nanoscience and nanotechnology Nanoscience • Material Science Material • Solid State Solid • Research in Medical Imaging Research • Laser Spectroscopy Lase Spectroscopy Theoretical Physics: Theoretical • Theory of Condensed Matter Physics: (Bose-Einsten Theory condensation, Quantum field theory). condensation, • Computational Physics : (Magnetism, catalysis) Computational (Magnetism, Members of the Physics Department Resources of Funds Resources Deanship of scientific research. The higher council of science & technology. Mango center. HOWEVER HOWEVER These resources are very SMALL as compared to These the real need! the Most of the Jordanian scientists are depending Most on external funds & external donations. on Research Challenges at UJ Research Acute shortage of funds ( minor contribution from Acute UJ). UJ). Non-relevance of programs ( No funds from industry Non-relevance to create motivated research projects ). to No grants resources to create Postdoc opportunities. No resources for Ph.D. scholarships to have full time No Ph.D. students. Ph.D. No budget to invite scientists. Negligible resources for organizing conferences at Negligible UJ. A very small support for scientist’s contributions in very international conferences. international My Group Members My Bothina Hamad (Assistant Prof.) Hanan Sa’adi (M.Sc. Student) Bilal Al-Qasem (Ph.D. Student) Ihsan Ereekat (Ph.D. Student) Joining Soon: Ashraf Fadous (M.Sc. Student) Ziad Quda (M.Sc. Student) Condition: If I can find some external resources for computational If power !!!!! power Resources 4 P4 computers. 5 (64 AMD dual opterons) machines. (64 A Donation from Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Foundation. Problems: Difficulties in setting up the linux cluster. No cooling system. No UPS . Fields of Interests Fields (1) Magnetism Surface Magnetism Semi-empirical TB Method First Principle First calculations calculations Interlayer Exchange Interlayer Coupling Coupling First Principle First calculations calculations Fields of Interests Fields (2) Structures and dynamics of transition metal surfaces Surface Relaxation DFT DFT calculations calculations Phonons DFT+ DFT+ Interpolations Interpolations (3) Catalysis (3) Oxide formation and oxidation catalysis at transition metal surfaces (CO oxidation on transition-metal surfaces). surfaces). We have just started (1) MAGNETISM (1) (A) Magnetic structure of transition-metal (A) surfaces and interfaces surfaces Fe, Co & Ni are the only bulk ferromagnetic materials in nature. nature. Transition metals are good candidates for fabricating artificial good magnetic structures of materials that are paramagnetic in their bulk. i.e. (surfaces, overlayers & ultrathin films) i.e. Magnetic structure of artificial structures is attributed to the following : 1. The decrease in the coordination number 2. The increase of the interatomic spacing . 3. The induction of magnetized neighboring atoms . Density of states near Fermi level increases & satisfying Stoner criterion (J×n(Ef)>1) that gives rise to the appearance of magnetism. Semi-empirical Calculation Semi-empirical self-consistent real-space tight-binding method in the one-electron Hartree-Fock approximation of the Hubbard Hamiltonian is used to study the magnetic structure of transition metals in different structural forms. The Hubbard Hamiltonian can be written as: A Results Results Iron-Vanadium Systems • Bulk vanadium is paramagnetic. • V interfaces exhibit induced magnetism when they are brought in contact with magnetic materials. • Low dimensional V monolayers exhibit appreciable local magnetic moments. (i) Fe overlayers on vanadium semi-infinite surface: Magnetic moments, in units of μB, for Fe overlayer on the semi-infinite V(001). Fe V S I-1 I-2 1.52 (b)ii) ( I -0.63 0.2 -0.03 V overlayers on Fe semi-infinite surface: Magnetic moments , in units of μB, for V overlayer on the semi-infinite Fe(001). V S -0.85 Fe I 1.37 I-1 2.60 I- 2 2.41 Local Density of States (States/atom. eV) V overlayer in V/Fe(001) Bulk V Ef J v=0.5 eV Stoner Criterion J× n(Ef )> 1 Energy (eV) High- index orientations (1) V/Mo (103) V V -0.34 0.93 Mo Mo 0.04 V Mo Mo 0.03 0.93 Mo -0.01 V -0.34 -0.1 0.04 Mo -0.1 Mo Mo -0.01 0.03 The magnetic moment (in Bohr Magnetons) for surface V atoms and atoms of Mo sublayer in V/Mo(103) system. The average magnetization ( in Bohr magnetons) for the V/Mo(10 k) stepped structures till Magnetism (B) Interlayer Exchange Coupling (B) The interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) between magnetic layers separated by a nonbetween magnetic spacer has attracted considerable magnetic interest due to their interesting properties such as the oscillation between ferromagnetic (FM) as oscillation between (FM) and antiferomagnetic (AF) coupling, and giant and (AF) coupling, magnetoresistance (GMR). Magnetic Non-Magnetic Spacer Magnetic FM FM AF AF What `s GMR? What GMR is the change in electrical resistance in response to an applied magnetic field .It was discovered that the application of a magnetic field to Fe/Cr multilayer resulted in a significant reduction of the electrical resistance of the multilayer. GMR Applications GMR A study of IEC of CoIrn Superlattices study Superlattices In order to use such superlattices in GMR applications and spin injection, the magneticapplications nonmagnetic materials should have band nonmagnetic structure matching. Cobalt-iridium (Co-Ir) system is an interesting system for studying the IEC due to the band matching between the two elements. Investigations are done using FP-LAPW (WIEN2k). FP-LAPW Co-spin up Ir The optimization procedure for the CoIrn supercells CoIr1 CoIr2 1st volume optimization c/a Ratio (constant c/a) Structure Structure (constant volune) 2nd volume optimization (constant c/a) )Interlayer Exchange coupling (IEC d is the thickness of the spacer layer & FM total energies of & arrangements AF IEC using LSDA IEC Using LSDA 30.0 25.0 LSDA 20.0 Interlayer Exchange Coupling (meV) 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 -5.0 -10.0 -15.0 -20.0 Ir Spacer Layer Thickness (Å) 10.0 12.0 14.0 IEC using GGA IEC Using GGA 30.0 GGA Interlayer Exchange Coupling (meV) 20.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 -10.0 -20.0 -30.0 Ir Spacer Layer Thickness ( Å) 10.0 12.0 14.0 Results --The IEC flips from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic at 4.94 Å and 10.25 Å. --The period of oscillation is found to be 5.31 Å for the LSDA as well as the GGA approximation in agreement with experiment. Magnetic moments (in Bohr magnetons) for each layer in the Co/Ir unit cell using GGA approximation. Results are shown for one Co layer on top of up to 7 Ir layers. Co Ir1 Ir2 0.97993 0.134 1.42499 0.026 0.026 1.65864 0.129 -0.079 0.129 1.67722 0.169 -0.046 -0.046 0.169 1.65462 0.127 -0.043 -0.020 -0.043 0.127 1.70254 0.135 -0.055 -0.001 -0.001 -0.055 0.135 1.69909 0.145 -0.045 -0.008 0.028 -0.008 -0.045 Ir3 Ir4 Ir5 Ir6 Ir7 0.145 Magnetic moments (in Bohr magnetons) for each layer in the Co/Ir unit cell using LSDA approximation. Results are shown for one Co layer on top of up to 7 Ir layers. Co Ir1 0.8888 Ir2 0.110 Ir3 Ir4 Ir5 Ir6 1.26837 0.021 0.021 1.53664 0.114 -0.063 1.53591 0.136 -0.036 -0.036 1.51666 0.105 -0.035 -0.016 -0.035 0.105 1.57306 0.113 -0.041 0.000 0.000 -0.041 1.56612 0.117 -0.038 -0.006 0.021 -0.006 -0.038 Ir7 0.114 0.136 0.113 0.117 Magnetic moments on Co atoms in CoIrn multilayers as a function of Ir spacer layer using GGA calculations 1. 8 GGA 1. 6 1. 4 Mag netic Moment of Co () 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0 0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 6. 0 8. 0 Thickness of Ir Spacerlayers (Å) 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 CONCLUSIONS CONCLUSIONS of the IEC of We obtained an oscillatory behavior for the We interlayer exchange coupling with a period of interlayer 5.3 Å for both LSDA as well as GGA. 5.3 for LSDA as GGA The induced magnetism exhibit an AF interlayer The AF coupling in Ir spacer. coupling The local magnetic moment on Co layers The increases as a function of spacer thickness until increases it saturate. saturate Challenges 1. IEC energies are of the order of (0.1 to 1 meV) per unit cell, i.e., considerably smaller than the total energy of the system, this makes numerical convergence of the calculations a tedious problem. 2. Computational time increases rapidly with the size of the unit cell, which makes the investigation of long-period oscillations problematic. (2) Structural and Dynamical Properties of Ru(0001) surface Motivation: The debate between theory and experiment about the first layer relaxation. Experiment d12=-2% Theory d12=-4% Is this discrepancy due to: Is a temperature effect? surface vibrations that are approximated by surface bulk values in LEED calculations? bulk a defect in the DFT calculations? The recipe to resolve this dispute? 1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to test the effect of temperature (T > 0). temperature 2. Test of the effect of vibrations on LEED 2. Calculations. Calculations. 2. Thorough DFT calculations of clean Ru(0001) surface 2. with well-converged basis set & different XC functionals. with 1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations DFT calculations : T= 0K LEED measurements :T=100K Is it a temperature effect? A scheme using DFT combined with classical MD simulations is performed. DFT Calculations DFT 114 DFT energy points for Ru(0001) using: 114 - WIEN2K (APW+lo) WIEN2K - GGA for functional GGA - Surface described by a supercell of 6 atomic layers & 13Å vacuum. layers Interpolation Using 2D Thin-Plate Splines Using Classical MD Simulations Using Velocity-Verlet method Using Time step : dt = 0.1f s Time Total time : 50 ps Recipe: Recipe: Choose an initial point (structural configuration) defined by: (x, y) coordinates corresponding to the relaxation(d12 and d23 of the 1st and 2nd layers. of Layer 1 d12 Layer 2 Layer 3 d23 MD Simulations DFT Energies Structure 1 (xi, yi), T Interpolation (2D splines) Force U (Potential Energy) DFT Energies Time step : dt = 0.1f s Time Total time : 50 ps (Velocity-Verlet Algorithm) (x, y) (vx, vy) Ru(0001), MD simulation 2. Test of the effect of vibrations on LEED Calculations Calculations A test of the effect of vibrations on the IV LEED curves for surfaces & compare with the effect of structure. 1000 Beam (10) o 800 V=0.08 A -2 % -4 % I(E) 600 400 200 0 100 200 300 400 Electron Energy (eV) 500 600 (10) Beam, d12= -4% Vibrational Amplitude o 1000 0.00 A o 0.04 A o 0.08 A 800 o 0.12 A I(E) 600 400 200 0 100 200 300 400 Electron Energy (eV) No effect of vibration 500 600 3. Is it an XC Problem? 3. Functional LDA Relaxation( %) - 4.0 PW91 PBE -4.1 RPBE -4.0 BUT, are these XC functional reliable for Ru surface?? L. Wang & D. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem.109, 23113 (2005) Most probably our problem is related to the XC functional?! Outlook Outlook We are looking forward to achieve the following goals: Establishing long-term collaborations with colleagues all over the Establishing world. world. Looking for grants and Joint projects that help Jordanian scientists Looking to cover Ph.D. scholarships, inviting scientists etc. Creating a program of exchange visits for the graduate students Creating from USA and Jordan. from Searching for resources to organize conferences, workshops and Searching summer schools at UJ. summer Searching for possible CPU time slots in supercomputers centers to Searching help Jordanian scientists to peruse the state of the art research. help Website: www.ju.edu.jo Thank you for your attention ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 350 taught by Professor Duanejohnson during the Summer '06 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online