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Unformatted text preview: Education and Research in Jordan,
Challenges & Outlook
Bothina Hamad , Ph.D.
University of Jordan rd,
MCC, August, 3rd, , 2006
2006 Jordan: A Quick Introduction
Jordan: Population: About 5.25 Millions
Famous sites :
: 3 hours south Amman
Wadi Rum : 4 hours south Amman
: 4 hours south Amman
: 1 hour north Amman Climate: Special climate, cool for most
summer days and rainy in the winter time with
many spectacular sunny days. Language: Arabic is the official language.
English is the second language and is spoken
throughout the country.
throughout Education In Jordan Education is one of the most important things that the
Jordanian government and people care about.
Jordanian people believe strongly in Education and they
think that is the key for the future.
Most of the Jordanians would do anything to send their
kids to school and then off to the universities.
The Education system in Jordan is one of the best
systems in the Middle East region. It concentrates a lot
on the person and it tries to take care of the children to
put them on the right start. Higher Education
Higher Eight public universities with 80,000 students.
students. Twelve private universities with 30,000 students.
30,000 Twenty one community colleges with 29,000 students.
students. 25% of total recurrent costs are recovered in the public
Spending on education relative to GNP is greatest in the
1/3 of educational expenditure is given to higher
education. • Jordan University
• Yarmouk University
• Science & technology
•Al Al-Bayt University
• Heshemea University
• Al Balqa University
•Ma’an University The University of Jordan
The Competence & Excellence UJ in Brief :
UJ Established in 1962, UJ is the leading and the oldest
institution of higher education in Jordan. It is often
referred to as the “mother” university.
UJ started with the Faculty of Arts with 167 students
enrolled & 5 faculty members.
Today, it has 18 academic faculties, two deanships
(research and student affairs), 11 centers, and many
11 centers and
other facilities, including an excellent library. The
number of faculty members stands at about 1200 at
It has a student population, at both the graduate and
undergraduate levels, of about 38,000. Undergraduate
students: 34,000 & Graduate students: 4,000.
UJ began with the year system. In 1972-73 it switched
to the credit-hour system. It was the first in the Arabto
World to do so. The faculties of Medicine, and
Dentistry are the only exceptions. Location
It is located in Amman (the white city), the capital
of Jordan, a city of about 2 million people. Like
Rome, originally established on 7 hills.
hills Amman One-Campus University
UJ prides itself on the beauty of its oneUJ
campus university. Nestled on a spacious
area of 120 Ha (1,200 dunums) , the
landscape is composed of flat ground and
mild slopes covered with evergreen pines,
elms and olive trees. Status
Status UJ is a “public” university: it is semiindependent, neither totally state-run or
supported, nor privately endowed or
invested. UJ is, at once, national, regional, and
international. Undergraduate Programs
1. Regular Program: the Unified Coordination
Admission Bureau: coordinates general
admission for all public universities in the
Kingdom according to the regulations of the
Higher Education Council.
2. Parallel Program: for students with nonJordanian nationalities/certificates, or for the
students who were not accepted through the
Regular Program. Graduate Programs
There are two tracks for the Master's degree (36 credit hours):
1. Non-thesis track, in which students must pass a comprehensive
exam after successfully finishing the courses required by the
program's Study Plan.
program's Master's thesis track: requires the student, in addition to
successfully finishing the courses required by the Study Plan, to
conduct research, and subsequently submit and defend a Master's
thesis. The maximum period is 6 semesters in both tracks. TOEFL is required.
TOEFL Graduate Programs 2.
2. Ph.D. Program:
Maximum of 10 semesters.
54 credit hours (36 hours courses, 18 hours thesis)
TOEFL Required Faculty members
Faculty • The majority of the faculty members are USA and
Europe graduates. Some are UJ graduates .
• They are chosen in standards of high merits. Teaching duties
Rank Hours per week Assistant Professor 12 hours
12 Associate Professor 12 hours
12 Full Professor 9 hours
hours Distribution of Faculty Members at UJ 58% 42 % Humanities & Social
Scientific Faculties A) Overall Gender Distribution of
Faculty Members at UJ
Female Students Body
Students UJ is proud of choosing the top students in
Jordan with high academic achievement and
excellence. Strong international presence: more than 77
countries represented on campus, and over
12% are international students.
12% Diverse students: varieties from the country,
the region, and the globe. Gender, ethnic,
race A) Overall Gender Distribution of Students at UJ
Female B) Gender Distribution of Students
Scientific Faculties 52% 48% Humanities and Social Sciences 67% 33% Male
Female Gender Distribution of Graduate Students at UJ
UJ 44% 56% Male
Female Faculty of Science Established in 1965 by departments of Mathematics, Physics,
Chemistry and Biological Sciences with 112 students and 5
faculty members. present student enrollment reached more than 2000
undergraduate as well as about 321 graduate students, and 121
faculty members. In 1973, the Department of Geology was added . Department of Computer Science in 1982 that becomes King
Abdullah II School for Information Technology in 2000. In 2002, the Mathematics department added an Actuarial science
program. In 2004, the Biology department added a Medical analysis
program. Physics Department
Physics The Department has 26 Faculty members engaged in teaching
of about 350 students.
350 Research in the Physics Department:
• Nanoscience and nanotechnology
• Material Science
• Solid State
• Research in Medical Imaging
• Laser Spectroscopy
Lase Spectroscopy Theoretical Physics:
• Theory of Condensed Matter Physics: (Bose-Einsten
condensation, Quantum field theory).
• Computational Physics : (Magnetism, catalysis)
(Magnetism, Members of the Physics Department Resources of Funds
Resources Deanship of scientific research.
The higher council of science & technology.
Mango center. HOWEVER
These resources are very SMALL as compared to
the real need!
the Most of the Jordanian scientists are depending
on external funds & external donations.
on Research Challenges at UJ
Research Acute shortage of funds ( minor contribution from
Non-relevance of programs ( No funds from industry
to create motivated research projects ).
No grants resources to create Postdoc opportunities.
No resources for Ph.D. scholarships to have full time
No budget to invite scientists.
Negligible resources for organizing conferences at
A very small support for scientist’s contributions in
international My Group Members
My Bothina Hamad (Assistant Prof.) Hanan Sa’adi (M.Sc. Student)
Bilal Al-Qasem (Ph.D. Student)
Ihsan Ereekat (Ph.D. Student) Joining Soon: Ashraf Fadous (M.Sc. Student) Ziad Quda (M.Sc. Student)
If I can find some external resources for computational
4 P4 computers. 5 (64 AMD dual opterons) machines.
A Donation from Alexander von Humboldt
Foundation. Problems: Difficulties in setting up the linux cluster. No cooling system. No UPS . Fields of Interests
Surface Magnetism Semi-empirical
TB Method First Principle
calculations Interlayer Exchange
Coupling First Principle
calculations Fields of Interests
Fields (2) Structures and dynamics
of transition metal surfaces Surface Relaxation DFT
calculations Phonons DFT+
Interpolations (3) Catalysis
Oxide formation and oxidation catalysis at transition
metal surfaces (CO oxidation on transition-metal
We have just started (1) MAGNETISM
(A) Magnetic structure of transition-metal
surfaces and interfaces
Fe, Co & Ni are the only bulk ferromagnetic materials in
Transition metals are good candidates for fabricating artificial
magnetic structures of materials that are paramagnetic in
i.e. (surfaces, overlayers & ultrathin films)
i.e. Magnetic structure of artificial structures is attributed
to the following :
1. The decrease in the coordination number
2. The increase of the interatomic spacing .
3. The induction of magnetized neighboring atoms .
Density of states near Fermi level increases
& satisfying Stoner criterion (J×n(Ef)>1)
that gives rise to the appearance of magnetism. Semi-empirical Calculation
Semi-empirical self-consistent real-space tight-binding
method in the one-electron Hartree-Fock
approximation of the Hubbard Hamiltonian
is used to study the magnetic structure of
transition metals in different structural
The Hubbard Hamiltonian can be written as:
• Bulk vanadium is paramagnetic.
• V interfaces exhibit induced magnetism when they are
brought in contact with magnetic materials.
• Low dimensional V monolayers exhibit appreciable local
magnetic moments. (i) Fe overlayers on vanadium semi-infinite surface:
Magnetic moments, in units of μB, for Fe overlayer on the semi-infinite
Fe V S I-1 I-2 1.52 (b)ii)
-0.63 0.2 -0.03 V overlayers on Fe semi-infinite surface: Magnetic moments , in units of μB, for V overlayer on the semi-infinite
S -0.85 Fe
I 1.37 I-1 2.60 I- 2 2.41 Local Density of States
(States/atom. eV) V overlayer in V/Fe(001)
J v=0.5 eV Stoner Criterion
J× n(Ef )> 1 Energy (eV) High- index orientations
(1) V/Mo (103)
V V -0.34 0.93 Mo Mo 0.04 V Mo Mo
0.03 0.93 Mo -0.01 V -0.34 -0.1 0.04 Mo
-0.1 Mo Mo -0.01 0.03 The magnetic moment (in Bohr Magnetons) for surface
V atoms and atoms of Mo sublayer in V/Mo(103) system. The average magnetization ( in Bohr magnetons)
for the V/Mo(10 k) stepped structures till Magnetism (B) Interlayer Exchange Coupling
The interlayer exchange coupling (IEC)
between magnetic layers separated by a nonbetween
magnetic spacer has attracted considerable
interest due to their interesting properties such
as the oscillation between ferromagnetic (FM)
and antiferomagnetic (AF) coupling, and giant
Non-Magnetic Spacer Magnetic FM
AF What `s GMR?
GMR is the change in electrical
resistance in response to an
applied magnetic field .It was
discovered that the application of a
magnetic field to Fe/Cr multilayer
resulted in a significant reduction
of the electrical resistance of the
multilayer. GMR Applications
GMR A study of IEC of CoIrn Superlattices
In order to use such superlattices in GMR
applications and spin injection, the magneticapplications
nonmagnetic materials should have band
structure matching. Cobalt-iridium (Co-Ir)
system is an interesting system for studying
the IEC due to the band matching between the
two elements. Investigations are done using
FP-LAPW Co-spin up Ir The optimization procedure for the CoIrn supercells CoIr1 CoIr2 1st volume optimization c/a Ratio (constant c/a) Structure
Structure (constant volune) 2nd volume optimization (constant c/a) )Interlayer Exchange coupling (IEC d is the thickness of the spacer layer
& FM total energies of
arrangements AF IEC using LSDA IEC Using LSDA 30.0
20.0 Interlayer Exchange Coupling (meV) 15.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 -5.0
Ir Spacer Layer Thickness (Å) 10.0 12.0 14.0 IEC using GGA IEC Using GGA 30.0 GGA Interlayer Exchange Coupling (meV) 20.0 10.0 0.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 -10.0 -20.0 -30.0
Ir Spacer Layer Thickness ( Å) 10.0 12.0 14.0 Results
--The IEC flips from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic
at 4.94 Å and 10.25 Å.
--The period of oscillation is found to be 5.31 Å for the
LSDA as well as the GGA approximation in agreement
with experiment. Magnetic moments (in Bohr magnetons) for each layer in the Co/Ir unit cell using
GGA approximation. Results are shown for one Co layer on top of up to 7 Ir layers. Co Ir1 Ir2 0.97993 0.134 1.42499 0.026 0.026 1.65864 0.129 -0.079 0.129 1.67722 0.169 -0.046 -0.046 0.169 1.65462 0.127 -0.043 -0.020 -0.043 0.127 1.70254 0.135 -0.055 -0.001 -0.001 -0.055 0.135 1.69909 0.145 -0.045 -0.008 0.028 -0.008 -0.045 Ir3 Ir4 Ir5 Ir6 Ir7 0.145 Magnetic moments (in Bohr magnetons) for each layer in the Co/Ir unit cell using
LSDA approximation. Results are shown for one Co layer on top of up to 7 Ir layers. Co Ir1 0.8888 Ir2 0.110 Ir3 Ir4 Ir5 Ir6 1.26837 0.021 0.021 1.53664 0.114 -0.063 1.53591 0.136 -0.036 -0.036 1.51666 0.105 -0.035 -0.016 -0.035 0.105 1.57306 0.113 -0.041 0.000 0.000 -0.041 1.56612 0.117 -0.038 -0.006 0.021 -0.006 -0.038 Ir7 0.114
0.117 Magnetic moments on Co atoms in CoIrn multilayers as a function of
Ir spacer layer using GGA calculations 1. 8 GGA 1. 6 1. 4 Mag netic Moment of Co () 1. 2 1 0. 8 0. 6
0. 4 0. 2 0
0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 6. 0 8. 0
Thickness of Ir Spacerlayers (Å) 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS of the IEC
of We obtained an oscillatory behavior for the
interlayer exchange coupling with a period of
5.3 Å for both LSDA as well as GGA.
The induced magnetism exhibit an AF interlayer
coupling in Ir spacer.
The local magnetic moment on Co layers
increases as a function of spacer thickness until
1. IEC energies are of the order of (0.1 to 1 meV) per unit
cell, i.e., considerably smaller than the total energy of
the system, this makes numerical convergence of the
calculations a tedious problem.
2. Computational time increases rapidly with the size of
the unit cell, which makes the investigation of long-period
oscillations problematic. (2) Structural and Dynamical Properties of
The debate between theory and experiment about
the first layer relaxation.
Theory d12=-4% Is this discrepancy due to:
Is a temperature effect? surface vibrations that are approximated by
bulk values in LEED calculations?
bulk a defect in the DFT calculations? The recipe to resolve this dispute?
1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations to test the effect of
temperature (T > 0).
2. Test of the effect of vibrations on LEED
2. Thorough DFT calculations of clean Ru(0001) surface
with well-converged basis set & different XC functionals.
with 1. Molecular Dynamics Simulations
DFT calculations : T= 0K
LEED measurements :T=100K
Is it a temperature effect?
A scheme using DFT combined with classical
MD simulations is performed. DFT Calculations
DFT 114 DFT energy points for Ru(0001) using:
- WIEN2K (APW+lo)
- GGA for functional
- Surface described by a supercell of 6 atomic
layers & 13Å vacuum.
Using 2D Thin-Plate Splines
Classical MD Simulations
Using Velocity-Verlet method
Time step : dt = 0.1f s
Total time : 50 ps Recipe:
Choose an initial point (structural configuration) defined by:
(x, y) coordinates corresponding to the relaxation(d12 and d23
of the 1st and 2nd layers.
of Layer 1
Layer 3 d23 MD Simulations
Energies Structure 1
(xi, yi), T Interpolation
(2D splines) Force
Time step : dt = 0.1f s
Total time : 50 ps (Velocity-Verlet
(vx, vy) Ru(0001), MD simulation 2. Test of the effect of vibrations on LEED
A test of the effect of vibrations on the IV LEED curves
for surfaces & compare with the effect of structure. 1000 Beam (10)
o 800 V=0.08 A
-4 % I(E) 600 400 200 0
100 200 300 400 Electron Energy (eV) 500 600 (10) Beam, d12= -4% Vibrational Amplitude
o 1000 0.00 A o 0.04 A o 0.08 A 800 o 0.12 A I(E) 600 400 200 0
100 200 300 400 Electron Energy (eV) No effect of vibration 500 600 3. Is it an XC Problem?
LDA Relaxation( %)
- 4.0 PW91
PBE -4.1 RPBE
-4.0 BUT, are these XC functional reliable for Ru surface?? L. Wang & D. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem.109, 23113 (2005) Most probably our problem is related to the XC functional?! Outlook
We are looking forward to achieve the following goals: Establishing long-term collaborations with colleagues all over the
world. Looking for grants and Joint projects that help Jordanian scientists
to cover Ph.D. scholarships, inviting scientists etc. Creating a program of exchange visits for the graduate students
from USA and Jordan.
from Searching for resources to organize conferences, workshops and
summer schools at UJ.
summer Searching for possible CPU time slots in supercomputers centers to
help Jordanian scientists to peruse the state of the art research.
help Website: www.ju.edu.jo
Thank you for your attention ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 350 taught by Professor Duanejohnson during the Summer '06 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.
- Summer '06