Acids and bases1

Acids and bases1 - AcidsandBases and AqueousEquilibria...

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Acids and Bases and Aqueous Equilibria David A Katz epartment of Chemistry Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Based on a PowerPoint by John D. Bookstaver t. Charles Community College, St. Peters, ased on a PowerPoint by John . ookstaver, St. Charles Community College, St. Peters, MO for Chemistry, The Central Science , 10th edition, by Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory ante August Arrhenius (1859 927) Svante August Arrhenius (1859 1927) Acid: Substance that produces hydrogen ions in water solution. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ase: bstance that produces Base: Substance that produces hydroxide ions in water solution. NaOH q) Na + q) + OH q) (aq) (aq) (aq) An acid neutralizes a base + ) OH ) H ) H (aq) + OH (aq) 2 O (l)
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory cid strength depends on the amount of Acid strength depends on the amount of hydrogen ions produced. Definition includes acids such as HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HSO 4 , HC 2 H 3 O 2 , etc. Base strength depends on amount of hydroxide ions produced. Definition includes bases such as NaOH, KOH, a(OH) Mg(OH) l(OH) etc Ca(OH) 2 , Mg(OH) 2 , Al(OH) 3 , etc.
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he Arrhenius Theory The Arrhenius Theory roblems with the Arrhenius Theory Problems with the Arrhenius Theory The solvent is limited to water, but water is not involved in the acid base reaction A solution of CO 2 in water is acidic, but H 2 CO 3 does not exist solution of NH water is basic but NH H does not A solution of NH 3 in water is basic, but NH 4 OH does not exist The reaction of HCl and NH resulted in an acidic solution 3
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Generalized Arrhenius Theory A Generalized Arrhenius Theory The solvent (water) can ionize to produce H + and OH ions H 2 O (l) ' H + (aq) + OH (aq) Acid: Substance that increases the concentration of ydrogen ions in solution hydrogen ions in solution. HCl (aq) ± H + (aq) + Cl (aq) A strong acid is 100% dissociated A weak acid is only slightly dissociated
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Generalized Arrhenius Theory A Generalized Arrhenius Theory Base: Substance that increases the concentration of ase Subs a ce a ceases e co ce a o o hydroxide ions in water solution. NaOH (aq) ± Na + (aq) + OH (aq) A strong base is 100% dissociated A weak base is only slightly dissociated Hydrolysis reactions can change H + and OH ncentration in water solution concentration in water solution CO 2 + H 2 O ' H + + HCO 3 CO 2 is an acid H H H + OH H a base NH 3 + H 2 O ' NH 4 + OH NH 3 is a base
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Generalized Arrhenius Theory A Generalized Arrhenius Theory If solvents other than water are used: The solvent can ionize to produce positive and negative ions Example: liquid ammonia, NH 3 NH ± H + NH 2 NH 3 NH 4 + NH 2 Acid: Substance that increases the concentration of the ositive ion in solution positive ion in solution.
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Acids and bases1 - AcidsandBases and AqueousEquilibria...

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