Equilibrium 2010

Equilibrium 2010 - Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium Part...

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Chemical Kinetics and quilibrium Equilibrium art 2: Chemical Part 2: Chemical Equilibrium David A. Katz Department of Chemistry py Pima Community College Tucson, AZ USA
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The Concept of Equilibrium Kinetics applies to the speed of a reaction, the oncentration of product appearing (or of reactant concentration of product appearing (or of reactant disappearing) per unit time Equilibrium applies to the extent of a reaction, the concentration of product that has appeared given unlimited time, or when no further macroscopic hemical equilibrium occurs when a reaction and change occurs. Chemical equilibrium occurs when a reaction and its reverse reaction proceed at the same rate.
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The Cobalt(II) Chloride Equilibrium Co(H 2 O) 6 2+ ( aq ) +4±Cl ( aq ) CoCl 4 ( aq ) +6±H 2 O ( l )
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The equilibrium system N 2 O 4(g ) 2 NO 2 (g) Initially, N 2 O 4 olorless) is added to When equilibrium is reached, the numbers f N nd NO As the system moves toward an quilibrium condition the color changes (colorless) is added to the reaction container of N 2 O 4 and NO 2 molecules is constant and the color remains unchanged equilibrium condition, the color changes as more NO 2 (red-brown) is formed
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he Concept of Equilibrium The Concept of Equilibrium As a system approaches equilibrium, both the forward and reverse reactions are occurring. At equilibrium, the rward and reverse forward and reverse reactions are proceeding at the same rate.
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System at Equilibrium A System at Equilibrium Once equilibrium is achieved, the amount of each reactant and product remains constant.
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Depicting Equilibrium A system at equilibrium is dynamic on the molecular level, that is, both the forward and the reverse reactions are still taking place at the same rate. rate forward = rate backward No net change is observed because changes in one direction are balanced by changes in the other. o show an equilibrium system, we write its equation To show an equilibrium system, we write its equation with a double arrow ( NO ( N 2 O 4 ( g ) 2 NO 2 ( g )
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Chemical Equilibrium Iron(III) and thiocyanate Fe(H 2 O) 6 3+ (aq aq) Fe(SCN)(H 2 O) 5 2+ (aq) + SCN - (aq) + H 2 O (l) +
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he The quilibrium Equilibrium onstant Constant
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he Equilibrium Constant The Equilibrium Constant orward reaction: Forward reaction: N 2 O 4 ( g ) 2 NO 2 ( g ) ate law: Rate law: Rate = k f [N 2 O 4 ] everse reaction: Reverse reaction: 2 NO 2 ( g ) N 2 O 4 ( g ) ate law: Rate law: Rate = k r [NO 2 ] 2
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he Equilibrium Constant The Equilibrium Constant At equilibrium Rate f = Rate r Substitute the rate equations k f [N 2 O 4 ] = k r [NO 2 ] 2 Rewriting this, it becomes k f k [NO 2 ] 2 N = r [ 2 O 4 ]
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he Equilibrium Constant The Equilibrium Constant he ratio of the rate constants is a constant The ratio of the rate constants is a constant at that temperature, so the constants are combined into a single constant, and the expression becomes = K k f [NO 2 ] 2 = K eq k r [N 2 O 4 ]
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he Equilibrium Constant The Equilibrium Constant To generalize this expression, consider the reaction a A + b B c C + d D The equilibrium expression for this
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Equilibrium 2010 - Chemical Kinetics and Equilibrium Part...

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