Esters - Introduction

Esters - Introduction - ESTERS An Introduction to Organic...

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ESTERS An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Reactions ©2006, 1990, 1982 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for educationa use provided original copyright is included. In contrast to inorganic reactions, which usually involve metals combining with non-metals or polyatomic ions, organic reactions occur as additions or substitutions into a compound or as a condensation-type reaction where removal of certain atoms or groups cause two molecules to combine. One type of reaction, that will be observed in this experiment, is a dehydration between an organic acid and an alcohol to produce an ester. An organic acid has a structure: This compound, which contains two carbon atoms with a group on one end of the molecule is ethanoic acid, commonly called acetic acid or vinegar (a 5% solution of acetic acid). An organic alcohol has a structure: This compound, which contains two carbon atoms with a –C-OH structure on one end of the molecule is ethanol, commonly called ethyl alcohol. When an organic acid is mixed with and alcohol in the presence of a a strong, dehydrating acid, such as sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 , the molecules are joined together to form an ester with the removal of a water molecule: C OH O H 3 C + H 2 C CH 3 HO C H 3 C O O H 2 C CH 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 ethanoic acid ethanol ethylethanoate water (acetic acid) (ethyl alcohol) (ethyl acetate) To obtain the pure ester, one would have to distill it from the mixture of products obtained in the reaction. The ester is called ethylethanoate, or commonly, ethyl acetate.
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 152 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Pima CC.

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Esters - Introduction - ESTERS An Introduction to Organic...

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