Gases Liquids and Solids 2010

Gases Liquids and Solids 2010 - States of Matter: States of...

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tates of Matter: States of Matter: ases, Liquids and Gases, Liquids and Solids David A. Katz ima Community College Pima Community College Tucson, AZ
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tates of Matter States of Matter The fundamental difference between states of matter is the distance between particles.
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he States f Matter The States of Matter Because in the solid and liquid states particles are closer together, we refer to them as condensed phases .
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The States of Matter The state a substance is in at a particular temperature and pressure depends on two antagonistic entities The kinetic energy of the particles The strength of the attractions between the particles
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The States of Matter ow does a solid liquid and How does a solid, liquid, and gas differ at the atomic- olecular level? molecular level?
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inetic- olecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory This is a model that aids in our understanding of what happens to particles s environmental as environmental conditions change.
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inetic- olecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory History: 856 August Krönig created a simple gas- inetic 1856, August Krönig created a simple gas kinetic model, which only considered the translational motion of the particles. 1857 Rudolf Clausius developed a more sophisticated udolf Clausius version of the theory which included translational, rotational and vibrational molecular motions. 1859, James Clerk Maxwell formulated the Maxwell istribution of molecular velocities In an 1875 article Rudolf Clausius distribution of molecular velocities. In an 1875 article, Maxwell stated: “we are told that an 'atom' is a material point, invested and surrounded by 'potential forces' and that when 'flying molecules' strike against a solid James Clerk Maxwell body in constant succession it causes what is called pressure of air and other gases.” More modern developments are based on the Boltzman equation, developed by Ludwig Boltzman. Ludwig Boltzman
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inetic- olecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory ccording to According to Boltzmann, the average kinetic energy of molecules is proportional to the absolute mperature temperature. An animation of the Maxwell-Boltzman distribution for molecular speeds in a gas can be found at http://www.chm.davidson.edu/chemistryapplets/KineticMolecularTheory/Maxwell.html
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Molecular Motion • Molecules exhibit several types of motion: ibrational: Periodic motion of atoms within a molecule Vibrational: Periodic motion of atoms within a molecule. Rotational: Rotation of the molecule on about an axis or tation about onds rotation about bonds. ranslational: Movement of the entire molecule Translational: Movement of the entire molecule from one place to another.
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Molecular Motion • At 0 K, all substances are solids. Molecules have vibrational motion.
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Gases Liquids and Solids 2010 - States of Matter: States of...

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