organic nomeclature

organic nomeclature - NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS...

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1 NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ©2010, 2003, 1980, by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself to form long chains and, as a result, millions of compounds from simple hydrocarbons to large biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Originally it was believed that these compounds had to come from a living organism, now they are synthesized in the laboratory. The simplest organic compounds are composed of carbon and hydrogen and are known as hydrocarbons. There are four types, or classes, of hydrocarbons: Alkanes: contain all C-C single bonds. These are known as saturated hydrocarbons . Alkenes: contain at least one C=C double bond. Alkynes: contain at least one C C triple bond. Both alkenes and alkynes are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons Aromatic hydrocarbons: contain a benzene structure Lewis structures of alkanes look like this: These are also called structural formulas. Since these take up a lot of space, condensed structural formulas are used. Even simpler than condensed structures are skeletal or line structures: There are a range of structures used to represent organic compounds: Before we start naming organic compounds, it is important to understand how carbon atoms are bonded. Every carbon atom will try to form 4 bonds. A carbon atom on the end of a chain of single bonded carbon atoms will be bonded to one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms: H C C H H
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2 A carbon atom in the middle of a chain of single bonded carbon atoms will be bonded to two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. A carbon atom bonded to 3 other single bonded carbon atoms will be bonded to one hydrogen. A carbon atom on the end of a chain that is double bonded to another carbon atom be bonded to two hydrogen atoms. A carbon atom in the middle of a chain of that is double bonded to another carbon atom will be bonded to one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom. A carbon atom on the end of a chain that is triple bonded to another carbon atom will be bonded to one hydrogen atom. The second carbon atom in that chain is only bonded to another carbon atom, but no hydrogen atoms. I. Naming Saturated Hydrocarbons - The Alkanes The names of the alkanes are derived from the Greek prefix for the particular number of carbon atoms in the compound with an -ane ending. The names of the first ten alkanes are given in the following table. H C C C C H C C \ H H C C C H H H C C C C C C C H
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3 Not all the alkanes are straight chained compounds, as shown in the previous table, they can have side chains or branches. These variations of compounds which have the same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms, but a different arrangement are known as isomers . Some isomers are shown in the diagram below.
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course CHEM 152 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Pima CC.

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organic nomeclature - NOMENCLATURE OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS...

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