lab2_Exercise_Note

# lab2_Exercise_Note - 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and...

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1 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transfer Processes Exercise Notes for the Pipe Flow TM Measurement of Flow Rate, Velocity Profile and Friction Factor in Pipe Flows S. Ghosh, M. Muste, M. Wilson, S. Breczinski, and F. Stern 1. Purpose The purpose of this investigation is to provide students with hands-on experience using a pipe stand test facility and modern measurement systems including pressure transducers, pitot probes, and computerized data acquisition with Labview software, to measure flow rate, velocity profiles, and friction factors in smooth and rough pipes, determining measurement uncertainties, and comparing results with benchmark data. Additionally, this laboratory will provide an introduction to PIV analysis, using an ePIV system with a step-up model. 2. Experimental Design 2.1 Part 1: Pipe Flow The experiments are conducted in an instructional airflow pipe facility (Figure 1). The air is blown into a large reservoir located at the upstream end of the system. Pressure builds up in the reservoir, forcing the air to flow through any of the three horizontal pipes. Pressure taps are located on each pipe, at intervals of 1.524m, for static pressure measurements. Characteristics for each of the pipes are provided in Appendix A. At the downstream end of the system, the air is directed downward and back, through any of three pipes of varying diameters fitted with Venturi meters (Figure 2). The top three valves control flow through the experimental pipes, while the bottom three valves control the Venturi meter to be used. The Venturi meter with 5.08cm diameter is used to measure the total flow rate, while the other two are kept closed. Six gate valves are used for directing the flow. The top and bottom 5.08cm pipes are used for measurements, while the middle one is kept closed during the experiment. Velocity measurements in the top and bottom pipes are obtained using pitot probe (Figure 3). Figure1. Airflow pipe system Figure 2. Venturimeter Figure 3. Pitot-probe Pressures are acquired either manually, using simple and differential manometers for data acquisition, or automatically, with the manometers connected to an automated Data Acquisition (DA) system that converts pressure to voltages using pressure transducers. Data acquisition is controlled and interfaced by Labview software, described in Appendix B. The schematic of the two alternative measurement systems is provided in Figure 4. Figure4. Manual and automated measurement systems used in the experiment Data Acquisition Instrumentation Venturimeter Pitot tube Pressure tap Differential manometer Pressure transducer Labview Stagnation Static Simple manometer Pressure transducer Labview Labview Pressure transducer Simple manometer

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2 All pressure taps on the pipes, Venturi meters, and pitot probes have 0.635cm diameter quick coupler connections that can be hooked up to the pressure transducers.
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