BIOL 1040 EXAM REVIEW

BIOL 1040 EXAM REVIEW - BIOL 1040 EXAM REVIEW Reproduction...

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BIOL 1040 EXAM REVIEW Reproduction – British Dude Chapter 13,30,38,42 Reproduction: ability to procreate, creation of new members of the species either similar or identical to their parent(s), a fundamental property of life. Mitosis – results in relative genetic constancy - Fission – diving unicellular organism – the reproduction of prokaryotes gives rise to clones. Viral Reproduction – - -Viruses can hijack a cells machinery to make viral copies instead of normal protein and nucleic acid activities of the cell. - -Once the cell is used up, cell wall is lysed (lytic cycle) releasing hundreds or thousands of new viruses into the surrounding extracellular space. Eukaryotic Asexual Reproduction – MITOSIS! Differentiated Multiceullar Organisms can reproduce asexually. This can be done through: - asexual spore and seed formation - budding - parthenogenesis - Asexual Reproduction – - Eukaryotes: based on mitotic division of the nucleus anaphase therefore produces CLONES of offspring that are genetically identical to the parent. - Asexual Spores – - Fungi : production of naked spores, CONIDIA , at the tips of the hyphae - Apomixis – asexual production of seeds (ie. Dandelions, citrus trees) - ovules develop directly into a seed and are genetically identical to the parent - fertilization is NOT required - Budding – outgrowth of a new cell from the surface of a parent cell, new cells differentiate before the buds break away from the parents (drop to ground and then root). - Parthogenesis - the development of unfertilized eggs and is common in arthropods, few vertebrates - ASEUAL REPRODUCTION IN AGRICULTURE - Does asexual reproduction ALWAYS mean that offspring are identical? - NO!! There is potential for mutation, transformation and transduction. - EVOLUTION AND REPRODUCTION - Mutation Accumulation: spontaneous mutations RARELY improve an organism’s ability to adapt to its environment BUT!! When random accumulations of mutations in spare copies of genes results in the production of new and useful gene products, natural selection tends to perpetuate transmission of the mutated genes. - Transformation
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- DNA from one bacterium genetically transforms another type (can add resistance, F-type, etc) - Some prokaryotes can pick up genes from the environment from dead neighbours whose DNA has leaked out - The new DNA is incorporated into the host chromosome, becoming apart of that cells genome - Transduction: - viruses can carry genes picked up from one cell into another, through repeated cycles of infection - ex. Genetic info can be transduced using phages to force bacteria into making human and animal proteins - by infecting with viruses that don’t kill infected cells, new genes can be inserted and propogated - transformation and transduction are also associated with huge risks for disease in human and animals - ex. Antibiotic resistance may be transferred from one bacterium to another, mixing of viral DNA (bird flu). -
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course BIOL 1040 taught by Professor Forgot during the Winter '10 term at University of Guelph.

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BIOL 1040 EXAM REVIEW - BIOL 1040 EXAM REVIEW Reproduction...

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