Psych. of Women- Exam 2 Study Guide

Psych. of Women- Exam 2 Study Guide - Chapter 6: Gendered...

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Chapter 6: Gendered Identities Theories of Gender Development • Social learning theory : approach that emphasizes how children learn gendered behavior from their environment (ex. Gendered chores) o Learning through reinforcement : behavior that is followed by desirable consequences is reinforced and is more likely to occur in the future -Adult not need to intend to teach a lesson about gender or his or her behavior to serve as reinforce o Learning through imitation : copying someone else’s behavior- seems to be spontaneous in young children ( imitation is often expressed in play) o Observational Learning : occurs through watching others’ behaviors, even though it may not always be expressed in immediate imitation, but instead is stored for later use - Albert Bandura study on reinforcement and imitation learning of aggression- children imitate behavior most when it is reinforced. Boys were more aggressive than girls - Likelihood that child will imitate behavior of same-gendered adults depends on proportion of same-gendered adults that display the behavior -The more gender-typical a behavior is the more likely child will imitate it • Cognitive Leaning Theories: Piget believed children move through fixed series of stages in their cognitive development. There are concepts they cannot grasp until they reach appropriate cognitive stage. -A 2 or 3 yr old can answer correctly if they he or she is a boy or girl but believe that people can change sex by changing hairstyle or clothes -Gender constancy : understanding that gender is permanent -Children exaggerate gender roles- need to keep gender categories cognitively distinct - children shows preference for gender-typed objects by 3yrs old • Gender Schema Theory: it is difficult to understand info. when you cannot connect it to a schema –explain need for gender typing. Gender schemas learned early - Gender schematics : highly gender typed- have well developed schemas an rely on them spontaneously -Gender aschematics: less gender-typed, less developed gender schemas -Gender schemas lead to selective attention and selective memory ( children misremembered stereotype inconsistent pictures when retested) Gender in Child’s Daily Life Parental Influences • Boys the preferred sex: - Some cultures practice female infanticide ( 9% of cultures) - Female-selective abortions: aborting healthy fetuses only because they are female ( practiced in Asian countries and Pakistan) -In china shortage of 40-60 million women predicted over next decade -Married couples with sons less likely to get divorced than couples w. daughters • Parents- Not Gender Neutral -Fathers view children in gender-stereotyped ways more than mothers - Mothers talk more to children ( supportive, emotion focused) fathers talk is more (directive and informative) - Areas in which parents treat children similarly are more common than when they treat them differently - Parental treatment may be influenced by the children’s own characteristics • Peer Influences
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course SOP 3742 taught by Professor Carbonell during the Fall '11 term at FSU.

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Psych. of Women- Exam 2 Study Guide - Chapter 6: Gendered...

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