lecture notes section 4

lecture notes section 4 - Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101...

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Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101 Fall 2011 Section 4 Page 1 Personality Definition Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual Trait Theories Explain differences between people in terms of stable personality traits Modern day psychologists have found 5 personality dimensions that span cultures The 5 Factor Theory Extraversion o sociable versus retiring o fun-loving versus serious o affectionate versus reserved Neuroticism o calm versus anxious o secure versus insecure o self satisfied versus self pitying Conscientiousness o organized versus disorganized o careful versus careless o disciplined versus impulsive Agreeableness o softhearted versus ruthless o trusting versus suspicious o helpful versus uncooperative Openness to Experience o imaginative versus practical o preference for variety versus preference for routine o independent versus conforming The 5 Factor Theory Helpful in predicting general trends in behavior Too general to predict behavior in a specific situation Behaviorist Theory Behavior determined by: reward, punishment, classical conditioning Temperaments : Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways o Present in infancy, assumed to be innate o Relatively stable over time Include:
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Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101 Fall 2011 Section 4 Page 2 o Reactivity easy to be irritated? o Soothability easy to calm down and relax after irritated? Babies who are easy or slow to warm up tend to be that way 10 years later Genetic Influences on Personality 123 pairs of identical twins and 127 pairs of fraternal twins Measured on “Big Five” personality dimensions Results suggest that personality differences in the population are 40 - 50% genetically determined. The Nature of Extraversion Eysneck: differences due to arousability Extraverts: low arousability, so seek external stimulation… lower heart rate reactivity Introverts : high arousability, so avoid external stimulation… higher heart rate reactivity Personality Consistency Is personality more consistent at some points in the lifespan? o the older you get the more consistent the personality is o from age 30+, fewer changes in personality Evidence indicates that personality is least stable during childhood Consistency increases with age Many Theories of Personality Emphasize Early Childhood Experience Attachment Theory - Bond between infant and caregiver will influence the individual’s interactions with others throughout the lifespan. Freudian Theory Social Learning Theory Freud!! Saw patients suffering from Hysteria (depression, anxiety, sleeplessness) Could find no medical cause Women reported being molested as children by male relatives Freudian Theory Used Psychoanalysis (theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, assume that our motives are largely unconscious)
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lecture notes section 4 - Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101...

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