lecture notes section 1

lecture notes section 1 - Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101...

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Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101 Fall 2011 Section 1 Page 1 Introduction (8/30) The Hindsight Bias A Research Finding About Love (see pg. 6 of syllabus) Examples of the hindsight bias Predict Winner of Election - Powell (1988) Predict Rape - Janoff-Bulman et al. (1985) What Is Psychology? The Scientific Study of Behavior and the mind. Scientific: Systematic, objective methods of observation (book calls “empirical”) Behavior : Any activity that can be observed, recorded, and measured. Mind: All conscious and unconscious mental states Must be inferred Goals of Psychology Not just to describe and explain behavior but also to predict and control behavior. The History of Psychology Wundt The father of psychology First laboratory Structuralism – identify the common elements of experience Introspection Functionalism How and why does the mind help us function in the world? Influences by Charles Darwin William James Amazing Ideas and Prose First Lab in USA Gestalt Psychology The whole is more than the sum of its parts Visual (e.g. Neon) Psychodynamic Theory Freud Theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior Push and pull of unconscious and conscious forces Behaviorism Skinner Reaction to Psychodynamic Theory Reinforcement Study behavior for behaviors sake
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Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101 Fall 2011 Section 1 Page 2 Humanistic Psychology Rogers Reaction to Behaviorism and Psychodynamic People have positive values, free will, and creativity Goal: Personal Growth Cognitive Approach How information is stored and operated on Reaction to Behaviorism Neuropsychology Understanding how the brain works helps us to understand psychology Evolutionary Psychology Natural Selection: changes in the frequency of genes in a population that occur because those genes give an organism more chance of survival What do psychologists do? Methods Steps to Research: 1. Observe phenomena 2. Come up with hypothesis 3. Operationalize variables 4. Choose research method 5. Analyze data 6. Theory The Story of Kitty Genovese Why Don’t People Help? Come up with Hypothesis Hypothesis: a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between causes and consequences Exp: “the larger the number of people who are witness to an emergency, the less likely anyone is to intervene.” Operationalize your variables Variables: measurable conditions that vary Exp: number of people, helping Independent Variable: the variables thought to “predict” the other variable Variable thought to predict other variable Exp: number of people
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Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101 Fall 2011 Section 1 Page 3 Dependent Variable: Any variable whose values are the result of changes in the independent variable. The “predicted”
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course PSY 006904 taught by Professor Troisi during the Fall '09 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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lecture notes section 1 - Lecture Notes, Gabriel Psych101...

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