chem slide 3 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry...

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Chapter 3 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 3 2 Formulas, Equations, and Formulas, Equations, and Moles Moles Chapter 3 Chapter 3
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Chapter 3 3 Chemical equations: descriptions of chemical reactions. Two parts to an equation: reactants and products : 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O Chemical Equations Chemical Equations
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Chapter 3 4 Stoichiometric coefficients : numbers in front of the chemical formulas; give ratio of reactants and products. Chemical Equations Chemical Equations
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Chapter 3 5 Law of conservation of mass: matter cannot be lost in any chemical reactions. Chemical Equations Chemical Equations
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Chapter 3 6 Balanced Chemical Equations Balanced Chemical Equations A balanced chemical equation must have the same numbers of atoms of each element present as reactants and products. To balance an equation only the coefficients in from of the chemical formulas can be adjusted. The balanced chemical equation provides the relative ratios of each substance and therefore provides the conversion factors to relate the amounts of one substance to another.
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Chapter 3 7 Displacement Reactions Displacement Reactions One reactant combines with part of a second reactant, displacing the other part. 2K( s ) + 2H 2 O( l ) 2KOH( aq ) + H 2 ( g ) Combustion in Air Combustion in Air Combustion is the burning of a substance in oxygen from air: C 3 H 8 ( g ) + 5O 2 ( g ) 3CO 2 ( g ) + 4H 2 O( l ) Patterns of Chemical Reactivity Patterns of Chemical Reactivity
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Chapter 3 8 Combination and Decomposition Reactions Combination and Decomposition Reactions 2Mg( s ) + O 2 ( g ) 2MgO( s ) There are fewer products than reactants; the Mg has combined with O 2 to form MgO. 2NaN 3 ( s ) 2Na( s ) + 3N 2 ( g ) (the reaction that occurs in an air bag) There are more products than reactants; the sodium azide has decomposed into Na and nitrogen gas. Na 3 N Patterns of Chemical Reactivity Patterns of Chemical Reactivity
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Chapter 3 9 Dealing with macroscopic behavior requires that the number ratio from a balanced equation be converted to a mass ratio. 1. Number ratio determined from the coefficients in the balanced equation. 2. Mass ratio is determined using molecular masses.
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Chapter 3 10 The Atomic Mass Scale The Atomic Mass Scale 1 H weighs 1.6735 x 10 -24 g and 16 O 2.6560 x 10 -23 g. We define: mass of 12 C = exactly 12 amu. Using atomic mass units: 1 amu = 1.66054 x 10 -24 g 1 g = 6.02214 x 10 23 amu Atomic and Molecular Weights Atomic and Molecular Weights
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Chapter 3 11 Average Atomic Mass Average Atomic Mass Relative atomic mass: average masses of isotopes: Naturally occurring C: 98.892 % 12 C + 1.108 % 13 C. Average mass of C:
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chem slide 3 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry...

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