Chem slide 4 - Chapter 4 1 Chemistry 107 General Chemistry Chemistry 107 General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof Jerry Keister Chapter 4

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister Chapter 4 2 Reactions in Aqueous Reactions in Aqueous Solution Solution Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 3 Reactions in Solution Reactions in Solution • Precipitation Reactions: A process in which an insoluble solid precipitate drops out of the solution. – movie • Most precipitation reactions occur when the anions and cations of two ionic compounds change partners. Pb (NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2K I ( aq ) → 2KNO 3 ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s ) Chapter 4 4 Reactions in Solution Reactions in Solution • Acid–base Neutralization: A process in which an acid reacts with a base to yield water plus an ionic compound called a salt . • The driving force of this reaction is the formation of the stable water molecule. H Cl( aq ) + Na OH ( aq ) → NaCl( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) Chapter 4 5 Reactions in Solution Reactions in Solution • Oxidation–Reduction (Redox) Reaction: A process in which one or more electrons are transferred between reaction partners. • The driving force of this reaction is the decrease in electrical potential. Mg( s ) + I 2 ( g ) → MgI 2 ( s ) movie Chapter 4 6 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution • Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity when molecular compounds generally do not? • Sucrose (Molecular): C 12 H 22 O 11 ( s ) + H 2 O → C 12 H 22 O 11 ( aq ) • Sodium Chloride (Ionic): NaCl( s ) + H 2 O → Na + ( aq ) + Cl – ( aq ) Chapter 4 7 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution • Electrolytes: Substances that dissolve in water to produce ionic solutions. • Nonelectrolytes: Substances that do not form ions when they dissolve in water. • Dissociation: The process by which a molecular compound splits up to form ions in the solution. HCl( g ) + H 2 O → H + ( aq ) + Cl – ( aq ) Chapter 4 8 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution • Strong Electrolyte: A compound that dissociates to a very large extent when dissolved in water. NaCl( s ) in H 2 O → Na + ( aq ) + Cl – ( aq ) • Weak Electrolyte: A compound that dissociates only a small amount when dissolved in water. • CH 3 CO 2 H ( l ) + H 2 O H 3 O + ( aq ) + CH 3 CO 2 – ( aq ) • CH 3 CO 2 H (aq) H + ( aq ) + CH 3 CO 2 – ( aq ) • Note: H + (aq) and H 3 O + (aq) mean the same thing. Chapter 4 9 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution Chapter 4 10 Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes in Solution Electrolytes movie Chapter 4 11 Net Ionic Equations Net Ionic Equations • Molecular Equation : Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ( aq ) + 2KI( aq ) → 2KNO 3 ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s ) • Ionic Equation: Pb 2+ ( aq ) + 2NO 3 – ( aq ) + 2K + ( aq ) + 2I – ( aq ) → → 2K + ( aq ) + 2NO 3 – ( aq ) + PbI 2 ( s ) • Net–Ionic Equation: Pb 2+ ( aq ) + 2I – ( aq ) → PbI 2 ( s ) K + ( aq ) and NO 3 – ( aq ) are spectator ions – ions which are present but play no part in the reaction Chapter 4 12 Reactions in Solution...
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 101 taught by Professor Churchill during the Spring '09 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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Chem slide 4 - Chapter 4 1 Chemistry 107 General Chemistry Chemistry 107 General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof Jerry Keister Chapter 4

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