chem slide 9 - Chemistry 107 General Chemistry Chemistry...

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Chapter 9 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 9 2 Gases:Their Properties and Gases:Their Properties and Behavior Behavior Chapter 9 Chapter 9
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Chapter 9 3 Characteristics of Gases Characteristics of Gases There are three phases for all substances: solid, liquid and gases. Gases are highly compressible and occupy the full volume of their containers. When a gas is subjected to pressure, its volume decreases. Gases always form homogeneous mixtures with other gases. Gases only occupy about 0.1 % of the volume of their containers.
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Chapter 9 4 Pressure Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Pressure is the force acting on an object per unit area: Gravity exerts a force on the earth’s atmosphere A column of air 1 m 2 in cross section exerts a force of 10 5 N. The pressure of a 1 m 2 column of air is 100 kPa. A F P =
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Chapter 9 5 Pressure Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer SI Units: 1 N = 1 kg.m/s 2 ; 1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m 2 . Atmospheric pressure is measured with a barometer. If an evacuated tube is inserted into a container of mercury open to the atmosphere, the mercury will rise 760 mm up the tube. Standard atmospheric pressure is the pressure required to support 760 mm of Hg in a column. Units: 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 1.01325 × 10 5 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 14.70 psi (pounds per sq. in.).
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Chapter 9 6 Pressure Pressure Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer Atmospheric Pressure and the Barometer
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Chapter 9 7 Pressure Pressure Pressures of Enclosed Gases and Manometers Pressures of Enclosed Gases and Manometers The pressures of gases not open to the atmosphere are measured in manometers. A manometer consists of a bulb of gas attached to a U-tube containing Hg. If the U-tube is closed, then the pressure of the gas is the difference in height of the liquid (usually Hg). If the U-tube is open to the atmosphere, a correction term needs to be added: If P gas < P atm then P gas + P h 2 = P atm . If P gas > P atm then P gas = P atm + P h 2 .
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Chapter 9 8 Pressure Pressure Pressures of Enclosed Gases and Manometers Pressures of Enclosed Gases and Manometers
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Chapter 9 9 Characteristics of an Ideal Gas Characteristics of an Ideal Gas This theory presents physical properties of gases in terms of the motion of individual molecules. Average kinetic energy is proportional to the absolute temperature. Gas molecules are in rapid random motion, collisions are perfectly elastic. An ideal gas consists of hard spheres which have mass but negligible volume. There are no forces of attraction between molecules of an ideal gas.
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Chapter 9 10 An ideal gas is a hypothetical gas whose pressure- volume-temperature behavior can be completely accounted for by the ideal gas equation.
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