chem slide 21 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry...

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Chapter 21 1 Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry 107: General Chemistry for Engineers for Engineers Prof. Jerry Keister
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Chapter 21 2 Metals and Solid-State Metals and Solid-State Materials Materials Chapter 21 Chapter 21
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Chapter 21 3 Occurrence and Distribution of Metals Occurrence and Distribution of Metals Minerals Minerals Ore: deposit that contains enough metal that we can extract economically. Most metals are found in minerals. Names of minerals are usually based on the location of their discovery. Other minerals are named after their colors: malachite comes from the Greek malache (the name of the tree with very green leaves). Most important ores are oxide, sulfide and carbonate minerals.
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Chapter 21 4 Occurrence and Distribution of Metals Occurrence and Distribution of Metals Minerals Minerals
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Chapter 21 5 Occurrence and Distribution of Metals Occurrence and Distribution of Metals Minerals Minerals
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Chapter 21 6 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes Metallurgy: the science and technology of separating metals from their ores and of compounding alloys. Gangue: Economically worthless material including sand, clay, and other impurities. Alloys: Metallic solutions composed of two or more elements.
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Chapter 21 7 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes Five principal steps in the process are: Mining. Preparation of the Ore. Production of the metal. Purification of the metal. Modification of metal’s properties.
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Chapter 21 8 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes 03 03 Preparation of the Ore: Ores are concentrated by separating from the gangue. The most common physical method is flotation .
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Chapter 21 9 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes A common chemical method of separation is the Bayer Process: Al 2 O 3 in bauxite is separated from Fe 2 O 3 impurities by treatment of the ore with hot aqueous NaOH, which dissolves Al 2 O 3 . Al 2 O 3 ( s ) + 2OH ( aq ) + 3H 2 O( l ) 2Al(OH) 4 ( aq ) Al 2 O 3 is recovered by filtration and treatment with a weak acid (CO 2 in air) to precipitate Al(OH) 3 and heating to give Al 2 O 3 .
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Chapter 21 10 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes After separation, the minerals are converted to a form that is more easily reduced to metal. Usually, these are metal oxides . Calcination: Elimination of volatile Product. PbCO 3 ( s ) PbO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) Roasting: The heating of minerals in air. 2ZnS( s ) + 3O 2 ( g ) 2ZnO( s ) + 2SO 2 ( g )
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Chapter 21 11 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes Reduction: Chemical or electrolytic methods are used, depending on the metal.
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Chapter 21 12 Metallurgical Processes Metallurgical Processes Refining: Metals obtained from processing and reducing ores usually require purification. Distillation, chemical purification, and
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chem slide 21 - Chemistry 107: General Chemistry Chemistry...

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