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Chapter 1

# Chapter 1 - 6851F_ch01_01_25 06*21 PM Page 1 1 1.1(a The...

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1.1 (a) The individuals are vehicles (or “cars”). (b) The variables are: vehicle type (categorical), transmission type (categorical), number of cylinders (quantitative), city MPG (quantitative), and highway MPG (quantitative). 1.2 (a) Categorical. (b) Quantitative. (c) Categorical. (d) Categorical. (e) Quantitative. (f) Quantitative. 1.3 Possible answers (units): Number of pages (pages) Number of chapters (chapters) Number of words (words) Weight or mass (pounds, ounces, kilograms . . .) Height and/or width and/or thickness (inches, centimeters . . .) Volume (cubic inches, cubic centimeters . . .) 1.4 Possible answers (reasons should be given): unemployment rate, average (mean or median) income, quality/availability of public transportation, number of entertainment and cultural events, housing costs, crime statistics, population, population density, number of automobiles, var- ious measures of air quality, commuting times (or other measures of traffic), parking availability, taxes, quality of schools. 1.5 (a) Shown below. The bars are given in the same order as the data in the table—the most obvious way—but that is not necessary (since the variable is nominal, not ordinal). (b) A pie chart would not be appropriate, since the different entries in the table do not represent parts of a single whole. 1 1 Comp. Sci. Life Sci. Educ. Engin. Phys. Sci. Psych. 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percent of female doctorates 6851F_ch01_01_25 12/09/2002 06*21 PM Page 1

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1.6 (a) Below. For example, “Motor Vehicles” is 46% since 0.45846. . . . The “Other causes” category is needed so that the total is 100%. (b) Below. The bars may be in any order. (c) A pie chart could also be used, since the categories represent parts of a whole (all accidental deaths). Cause Percent Motor vehicles 46 Falls 13 Drowning 4 Fires 4 Poisoning 11 Other causes 22 1.7 42,340 92,353 2 Chapter 1 0 10 20 30 40 Number of Gold Medals Won 22 27 32 Highway Gas Mileage The distribution has a peak at 0 and a long right tail. There are eight outliers, with the most severe being 26, 28, and 39. The spread is 0 to 39 and the center is 1. 1.8 The distribution is skewed to the left, with a major peak at 28 and a minor peak at 24. The spread is relatively narrow (21 to 32 mpg). The two observations at 21 and the observation at 32 appear to be mild outliers. The center is 28 mpg. 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percent of accidental deaths 1 (Mot.veh.) Cause of accidental death 2 (Falls) 3 (Drown- ing) 4 (Fires) 5 (Poison) 6 (other) 6851F_ch01_01_25 12/09/2002 06*21 PM Page 2
Exploring Data 3 15 25 35 45 55 DRP The center of the distribution is 35, and there are approximately the same number of points to the left and right of the center. There are no major gaps or outliers. The distribution is approximately symmetric. 1.11 (a) 0 399 1 1345677889 2 000123455668888 3 25699 4 1345579 5 0359 6 1 7 0 8 366 9 3 (b) 0 3 0 99 1 134 1 5677889 2 0001234 2 55668888 3 2 3 5699 4 134 4 5579 5 03 5 59 6 1 6 7 0 7 8 3 8 66 9 3 1.9 (a) Stems thousands, leaves hundreds. The data have been rounded to the nearest \$100.

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Chapter 1 - 6851F_ch01_01_25 06*21 PM Page 1 1 1.1(a The...

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