1.1 (a) The individuals are vehicles (or “cars”). (b) The variables are: vehicle type (categorical),
transmission type (categorical), number of cylinders (quantitative), city MPG (quantitative), and
highway MPG (quantitative).
1.3 Possible answers (units):
• Number of pages (pages)
• Number of chapters (chapters)
• Number of words (words)
• Weight or mass (pounds, ounces, kilograms .
• Height and/or width and/or thickness (inches, centimeters .
• Volume (cubic inches, cubic centimeters .
1.4 Possible answers (reasons should be given): unemployment rate, average (mean or median)
income, quality/availability of public transportation, number of entertainment and cultural
events, housing costs, crime statistics, population, population density, number of automobiles, var-
ious measures of air quality, commuting times (or other measures of traffic), parking availability,
taxes, quality of schools.
1.5 (a) Shown below. The bars are given in the same order as the data in the table—the most
obvious way—but that is not necessary (since the variable is nominal, not ordinal). (b) A pie chart
would not be appropriate, since the different entries in the table do not represent parts of a single
Educ. Engin. Phys.
Percent of female doctorates