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Ch 9 outline

# Ch 9 outline - Chapter 9 Outline 9-1 Factors Affecting...

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Chapter 9 Outline 9-1 Factors Affecting Human Population Size A. Demography is the study of the size, composition, and distribution of human populations and the causes and consequences of changes in these characteristics. B. Population increases through births and immigration and decreases through deaths and emigration. [population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration)] 1. The crude birth rate is the number of live births per 1,000 people in a population in a specific year. 2. The crude death rate is the number of deaths per 1,000 people in a population in a specific year. C. There are currently more births than deaths throughout the world. 1. The annual rate of natural population change (%) equals birth rate minus death rate divided by 1,000 persons multiplied by 100. 2. The rate of the world’s population growth has decreased. 3. The annual population growth dropped by almost half between 1963 and 2004, from 2.2% to 1.2%. But during this same period, the population base doubled from 3.2 to 6.4 billion. 4. There is a big difference in the exponential population growth rates of developed and developing countries, with developed countries growing at 0.25% and developing countries growing at 1.46% — almost six times faster. 5. The six fastest growing countries in terms of population are: India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. D. The populations of China and India comprise 38% of the world’s population. The next most populated country is the United Stated with 4.6% of the world’s population. E. Doubling time is one measure of population growth. The rule of 70 is a quick way to calculate doubling time in years. If the population grows by 1.2% in 2004, divide 70 by 1.2, which equals 58 years. F. Fertility is the number of births that occur to an individual woman in a population. 1. The changing nature of fertility rates effect population growth. a. Replacement-level fertility is the number of children needed to replace their parents. b. Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children that a woman has during her fertile years. 2. There are apt to be between 7.2–10.6 billion people by 2050, with 97% of this growth to be in developing countries. These countries have acute poverty as a way of life for about 1.4 billion people. G. From 1946–1964, the United States had a sharp rise in birth rate, called the baby-boom period. 1. At its peak, the TFR reached 3.7 children per woman. There has been a gradual decline since then. 2. The population growth of the United States is still greater than any other developed country and is not close to leveling off. 3. About 2.7 million people were added to the U.S. population in 2004. Fifty-five percent of this population growth came from more births than deaths, and forty-five percent came from immigration. a. Other major developed countries have slower population growth, and most are expected to have declining populations after 2010.

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