Chapter 8 Outline - Chapter 8 Outline 1. Population...

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Chapter 8 Outline 1. Population Distribution a. Three general patterns (clumping, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion) a.i. The individuals in the populations of most species live in clumps or groups. a.i.1. Clumping benefits a.i.1.a. The resources a species needs vary greatly in availability from place to place. a.i.1.b. Living in herds, flocks, and schools can provide better protection. a.i.1.c. Living in packs gives some predator species a better chance of getting a meal. a.i.1.d. Some animal species form temporary groups for mating and caring for their young. 2. Changes in population size: Entrances and Exits a. Births, deaths, immigration, and emigration govern changes in population size. b. Population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths + Emigration) 3. Age Structure: Young Populations Can Grow Fast a. Age structures are usually described in terms of organisms not mature enough to reproduce (preproductive ages), those capable of reproduction (reproductive ages), and those too old to reproduce (postreproductive ages). 4. Limits on Population Growth: Biotic Potential versus Environmental Resistance a. Populations vary in their capacity for growth, also known as their biotic potential. b. The intrinsic rate of increase [R] is the rate at which a population would grow if it had unlimited resources. c. Individuals in populations with a high intrinsic rate of growth typically reproduce early in life, have short generation times, can reproduce many times, and have many offspring each time they reproduce. d. No population can grow indefinitely e. Limiting factors – light, water, living space, nutrients, and exposure to predators/disease f. Environmental Resistance consists of all factors that act to limit the growth of a population. g. Biotic Potential + Environmental Resistance = Carrying Capacity (K) 5. Exponential and Logistic Population Growth; J-Curves and S-Curves a. Exponential or geometric growth starts slowly but then accelerates as the population increases because the base size of the population is increasing. b. Logistic growth involves rapid exponential population growth followed by a steady decrease in population with time until the population size levels off. 6.
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Chapter 8 Outline - Chapter 8 Outline 1. Population...

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