ch 10 - Chapter 10 The Muscular System Matching Questions...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 The Muscular System Matching Questions Figure 10.1 Using Figure 10.1, match the following: 1) Second-class lever. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328; Fig. 10.3 2) Humerus Ulna joint. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 328; Fig. 10.3 3) Tibia calcaneus joint. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 328; Fig. 10.3 4) Humerus metacarpal joint. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 328; Fig. 10.3 5) First-class lever. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328; Fig. 10.3 1 6) Shovel. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 328; Fig. 10.3 Figure 10.2 Using Figure 10.2, match the following: 7) May extend and laterally rotate the arm. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 8) Prime mover to protract and hold the scapula against the chest wall; rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 352-353 9) A muscle that has its origin on the manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle, and its insertion in the mastoid process of the temporal bone. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 10) Pectoralis minor. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 11) Coracobrachialis. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 2 Figure 10.3 Using Figure 10.3, match the following: 12) Trapezius muscle. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 13) Teres major muscle. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 14) The latissimus dorsi. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 15) Rotates scapula. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 16) Depresses scapula. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 17) Levator scapulae. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.8 3 Match the following: 1) Flexes the wrist. Diff: 1 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.11 A) Flexor carpi ulnaris B) Flexor digitorum profundus 2) Slow‐acting finger flexor. Diff: 1 Powerful wrist flexors that also stabilize the wrist during finger extension. 3) 4) 5) 1) A Extends and abducts the wrist. Diff: 1 D) Extensor pollicis longus and brevis Page Ref: Tbl. 10.11 Diff: 1 Page Ref: Tbl. 10.11 Extends the thumb. Page Ref: Tbl. 10.11 Diff: 1 2) B C) Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis Page Ref: Tbl. 10.11 3) A 4) C 5) D Match the following: 6) Muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 A) Antagonist B) Fixator C) Agonist 7) Muscle that stabilizes the orgin of another muscle. Diff: 1 9) 1) A Muscle that is primarily responsible for bringing about a particular movement. 8) Muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 Diff: 1 2) B D) Synergist Page Ref: 325 Page Ref: 325 3) A 4) C 5) D True/False Questions 1) A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328-329 2) Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328 4 3) Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 4) Muscles are only able to pull, they never push. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 5) The anconeus muscle flexes the knee and stabilizes the patella. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 357 6) Movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the pelvic girdle. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 367 7) The insertion of the biceps brachii is on the radius. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 357 8) The chewing muscle covering the ramus of the mandible is the buccinator. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 336-338 9) A prime mover of the arm that acts in adduction would be the deltoid. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 354-355 10) The soleus is a synergist of the gastrocnemius used in plantar flexion. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 376 11) Muscles that help to maintain posture are often called synergists. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 12) In order to propel food down to the esophagus, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles would be used. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 341 13) Plantar flexion at the ankle joint is accomplished by the tibialis anterior muscle. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 376-377 14) The arrangement of a muscleʹs fascicles determines its range of motion and power. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 326 15) Muscle power does not depend on the direction of the fascicles. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 326 5 16) The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) is the largest, strongest tendon in the body. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 376 17) The epicranius or occipitofrontalis has two bellies, the frontal and occipital. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 335 18) Electromyography is the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 384 19) Severing of the patellar tendon would inactivate the hamstring group. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 372 20) The broadest muscle of the back is the latissimus dorsi. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 354 21) Muscle spasms of the back would often include the erector spinae. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 344 22) Muscles connecting to the hyoid bone are instrumental in speech. Answer: FALSE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 340 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Scissors demonstrate which type of lever? A) first-class lever a B) second-class lever a C) third-class lever a D) fourth-class lever a Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328-329 2) What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking? A) xtensor digitorum e B) ibialis anterior t C) xtensor hallicus longus e D) ibularis tertius f Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 373 3) What is the major factor controlling the manner in which levers work? A) he structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever t B) he weight of the load t C) he direction the load is being moved t D) he difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum t Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326-328 6 4) With regard to muscle fiber arrangement in a pennate muscle ________. A) he fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle t B) he fascicular pattern is circular t C) he fascicles form a triangle t D) he fascicles are in a fusiform arrangement t Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 5) What primarily determines the power of a muscle? A) he length t B) he shape t C) he number of neurons innervating it t D) he total number of muscle cells available for contraction t Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 6) A muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement is called ________. A) synergist a B) n agonist a C) n antagonist a D) fixator a Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 7) When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscleʹs name, you can assume that ________. A) he muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively t B) he muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, t respectively C) he muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively t D) he muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively t Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 8) Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body? A) here are approximately the same number of muscles as bones: 206. T B) here are approximately 350 muscles in the body. T C) here are over 600 muscles in the body. T D) f one considers the very tiny, insignificant muscles, there are over 1000 muscles in the body. I Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 330 9) The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. When the term levator is part of the descriptive term for a muscleʹs action, this means that ________. A) he muscle flexes and rotates a region t B) he muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint t C) he muscle elevates and/or adducts a region t D) he muscle functions as a synergist t Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 7 10) The suprahyoid muscles ________. A) epress the larynx and hyoid bone if the mandible is fixed d B) re a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity a C) ove the pharynx superiorly during swallowing m D) re often called strap muscles a Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 340 11) The supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of the scapula above the spine. What is its action? A) o help hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity and rotate the humerus laterally t B) o stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in t abduction C) o extend and medially rotate the humerus and to act as a synergist of the latissimus dorsi t D) o flex and adduct the humerus and to act as a synergist of the pectoralis major t Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 355 12) The extensor carpi radialis brevis ________. A) xtends and abducts the wrist and is short e B) xtends and adducts the wrist and has a small tendon e C) upinates the forearm and is a superficial muscle s D) xtends the thumb and is a deep muscle e Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 360 13) The muscles that are found at openings of the body are collectively called ________. A) onvergent muscles c B) ircular muscles c C) arallel muscles p D) ivergent muscles d Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 14) To produce horizontal wrinkles in the forehead, which of the following muscles is involved? A) he medial pterygoid t B) he zygomaticus major t C) he frontal belly of the epicranius t D) he temporalis t Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 335 15) A cute, little curly haired child is sitting behind you in church. You turn around for a moment and she sticks her tongue out at you. Which tongue muscle did she use? A) rbicularis oris o B) tylohyoid s C) yoglossus h D) enioglossus g Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 339 8 16) Which group of muscles flexes and rotates the neck? A) he scalenes t B) he iliocostalis t C) he spinalis t D) he splenius t Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 342 17) Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position? A) he gastrocnemius t B) he sartorius t C) ll of the hamstrings a D) he quadriceps femoris t Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 367 18) Which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon? A) he semitendinosus t B) he sartorius t C) he tibialis anterior t D) he gastrocnemius t Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 376 19) If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________. A) oad is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum l B) ever system is useless l C) ffort is farther than the load from the fulcrum e D) oad is near the fulcrum and the effort is at the distal end l Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 328 20) Which of the following does not compress the abdomen? A) nternal oblique i B) xternal oblique e C) ransversus abdominis t D) occygeus c Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 348-350 21) A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n) ________. A) ntagonist a B) ixator f C) ynergist s D) rotagonist p Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 9 22) A muscle located on the dorsal side of the body is the ________. A) ectoralis minor p B) ectus femoris r C) ectus abdominis r D) nfraspinatus i Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 355 23) Which of the following is not a member of the hamstrings? A) racilis g B) emitendinosus s C) emimembranosus s D) iceps femoris b Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 372 24) A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling called the ________. A) latysma p B) asseter m C) ygomaticus z D) uccinator b Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 336, 338 25) Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis. A) erratus anterior s B) ygomaticus z C) latysma p D) ternocleidomastoid s Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 342 26) Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true? A) uscles produce movement by pulling on bones. M B) he bones serve as levers. T C) uring contraction the two articulating bones move equally. D D) he movements produced may be of graded intensity. T Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 27) Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles? A) uscle location m B) he type of muscle fibers t C) he type of action they cause t D) uscle shape m Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325-326 10 28) In flexing the forearm at the elbow, the ________. A) iceps brachii acts as antagonist b B) riceps brachii acts as antagonist t C) rachioradialis acts as antagonist b D) oracobrachialis acts as antagonist c Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 325 29) Orbicularis oris ________. A) loses, purses, and protrudes the lips c B) ulls the lower lip down and back p C) raws the eyebrows together d D) llows blinking, squinting, and various other protective mechanisms for the eye a Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 336 30) In a pennate muscle pattern ________. A) uscles appear to be straplike m B) here is a narrow origin diverging to a broad insertion t C) here is a broad origin and fascicles converge toward a single tendon t D) uscles look like a feather m Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 31) The extensor digitorum longus has which type of fascicle arrangement? A) ircular c B) onvergent c C) nipennate u D) ipennate b Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 326 32) Tennis players often complain about pain in the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions? A) he triceps brachii t B) he anconeus t C) he brachioradialis t D) he flexor digitorum profundus t Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 357, 384 33) To exhale forcibly, one would contract the: A) iaphragm alone. d B) nternal intercostals and diaphragm. i C) xternal intercostals and diaphragm. e D) ectus abdominis and diaphragm. r Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 346 11 34) Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh? A) iceps b B) astus medialis v C) oleus s D) liopsoas and rectus femoris i Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 367-369 35) First-class levers ________. A) ave load at one end of the lever, fulcrum at the other, and effort applied somewhere in the middle h B) re typified by tweezers or forceps a C) n the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific i location D) re the type found in the joints forming the ball of the foot as used in raising the body on the toes a Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 327-328 36) What do geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid have in common? A) ll names reflect direction of muscle fibers. A B) ach acts synergistically to elevate the jaw. E C) ll act on the tongue. A D) ll names indicate the relative size of the muscle. A Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 339-340 37) Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the ________. A) ateral rotators l B) nterior compartment of the thigh a C) osterior muscle group of the thigh p D) edial compartment of the thigh m Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 369 38) Which of the following muscles is involved in abduction? A) eltoid d B) ubscapularis s C) eres major t D) atissimus dorsi l Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 355 39) Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the thigh? A) ibialis posterior t B) astus lateralis v C) dductor magnus a D) luteus maximus g Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 369 12 40) Which of the following muscles is involved in inversion at the ankle joint? A) ibialis anterior t B) xtensor digitorum longus e C) eroneus tertius p D) eroneus longus p Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 373 41) Which of the following muscles serves as a common intramuscular injection site, particularly in infants? A) he vastus intermedius t B) he vastus medialis t C) ectus femoris r D) he vastus lateralis t Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 369 42) Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the knee? A) amstring muscles h B) luteal muscles g C) rachioradialis b D) oleus s Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 372 43) Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion? A) opliteus p B) ibialis posterior t C) lexor digitorum longus f D) astrocnemius and soleus g Answer: A Diff: 3 Page Ref: 376 Fill‐in‐the‐Blank/Short Answer Questions 1) ________ is a powerful forearm extensor. Answer: Triceps brachii Diff: 1 Page Ref: 357 2) The ________ is known as the boxer muscle. Answer: serratus anterior Diff: 1 Page Ref: 352 3) The ________ runs deep to the external oblique. Answer: internal oblique Diff: 1 Page Ref: 348 4) The ________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing. Answer: buccinator Diff: 1 Page Ref: 336, 338 5) ________ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror. Answer: Platysma Diff: 1 Page Ref: 336 13 6) ________ is the main chewing muscle. Answer: Masseter Diff: 1 Page Ref: 338 7) The pectoralis major has a ________ arrangement of fascicles. Answer: convergent Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 8) ________ is the abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a weak point in the muscle of the abdominal wall. Answer: Hernia Diff: 1 Page Ref: 384 9) ________ fibers run at right angles to the axis of the muscle. Answer: Transversus Diff: 1 Page Ref: 326 10) The quadriceps femoris is composed of three vastus muscles and the ________. Answer: rectus femoris Diff: 2 Page Ref: 369 11) ________ is a synergist of the latissimus dorsi; it extends, medially rotates, and adducts the humerus. Answer: Teres major Diff: 2 Page Ref: 355 12) ________ extends the great toe. Answer: Extensor hallucis longus Diff: 2 Page Ref: 373 13) Bodybuilders are known for their ʺgreat quads.ʺ Describe the quadriceps muscles. Answer: These are the muscles of the front and sides of the thigh, and include the rectus femoris and the lateral, medial, and intermediate vastus muscles. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 369 14) A woman mentions to her friend that another person on the beach has ʺgreat abs.ʺ What is she talking about? Answer: woman is referring to well-developed rectus abdominis muscles on some individual. This is a The term coined by bodybuilders and refers to the bulging muscles between the tendinous intersections. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 348 15) Muscles that act as synergists seem to have valuable functions, especially in stabilizing joints. Briefly explain their function. Answer: Synergists aid agonists by promoting the same movement or by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movements that might occur as the prime mover contracts. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 325 16) How does an antagonist differ from a prime mover? How is it the same? Answer: prime mover is the muscle that causes the desired movement to occur. An antagonist is a muscle A that opposes the action of the prime mover in a given movement. If, however, the direction of movement reverses, the former antagonist is now the prime mover and the former prime mover is now the antagonist. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 325 14 17) An elderly woman, with extensive osteoarthritis of her left hip joint, entered the hospital to have a total hip joint replacement (prosthesis implantation). After surgery, her left hip had to be maintained in adduction to prevent dislocation of the prosthesis while healing was occurring. Physical therapy was prescribed to prevent atrophy of the gluteal muscles during the interval of disuse. Name the gluteal muscles and describe the action of each that was being prevented while the hip was adducted. Answer: Gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus. These muscles originate on the pelvis; they act as major extensors of the thigh and abduct and rotate the thigh as well. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 370 18) A wide receiver for the Dallas Cowboys pulled a hamstring muscle. What muscles could be affected and what would the effect be? Answer: muscles include the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus. They are important The flexors of the leg and extensors of the thigh. Injuries here could make it impossible to run properly or to bend the thigh. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 372 19) Malcolm was bending over to pick up a heavy box when he was suddenly startled by a rat. He experienced severe pain in his back with muscle spasms and was unable to straighten up. What muscles could have been affected? Answer: probably affected the erector spinae muscles, since these readily go into spasms when the back is He injured. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 344 20) How can a lever system work at a disadvantage but still be of use to us? Answer: lever that operates with the load far from the fulcrum and the effort applied near the fulcrum is A operating at a disadvantage, but the advantage is that the load can move over large distances at a rapid rate. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 328 21) What muscles are involved in biting and chewing an apple? Answer: Open and close lips levator labii superioris and orbicularis oris Open the mouth digastric and mylohyoid Closing the mouth and chewing masseter, temporalis, and pterygoids Tongue genioglossus, hypoglossus, and styloglossus Extra Buccinator holds food in teeth grinding area. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 336-341 22) Which muscle is used for normal breathing and which additional muscles are used when performing strenuous exercises? Answer: diaphragm is the primary breathing muscle. The external intercostals are used to increase The inspiration and are synergistic to the diaphragm. Forced exhalations use the internal intercostals. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 346 23) Damage to the ischiocavernosus muscle would have what effect? Answer: the male, it would be impossible to achieve an erection of the penis. In the female, the clitoris In would not become erect. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 350 15 Clinical Questions 1) Donna was rushing to class and slipped on a patch of ice and fell backward. An X ray revealed a broken coccyx. All the associated muscles were bruised. Name these muscles. Answer: bruised muscles were levator ani and coccygeus. The Diff: 2 Page Ref: 350 2) Brian decided to enter a 5-mile race designed to raise money for a class trip. He did not do any preconditioning, nor has he ever jogged before. The morning after the race, Brian had so much pain in both his legs, he was unable to go to school. What caused this pain? Answer: Brian was not conditioned for this type of run, and he now has shin splints. This is a condition in which the anterior tibialis muscle is irritated, and as the inflamed muscle swells, its circulation is impaired by the tight fascial wrappings, causing pain and tenderness. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 384 3) A young pregnant woman went to a childbirth class and the instructor informed them about strengthening the muscles of the pelvic floor. What are these muscles? Answer: levator ani and coccygeus muscles form the bulk of the pelvic diaphragm (pelvic floor). The Strengthening these muscles helps in the delivery of the child by resisting downward forces when ʺpushing.ʺ Diff: 2 Page Ref: 350 4) A nurse can facilitate respiratory functioning by encouraging deep breathing exercises such as diaphragmatic breathing. Explain diaphragmatic breathing. Answer: Diaphragmatic breathing is the alternating contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm causing pressure in the abdominopelvic cavity below that facilitates blood to the heart. Diaphragmatic breathing promotes maximum inhalation and lung expansion. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 346 5) In emphysema, the lungs become overdistended with trapped air. Effective abdominal breathing is decreased. Describe the muscles involved when breathing becomes an active process, such as a patient who has emphysema. Answer: internal intercostal muscles form the deeper layer of the thorax and aid active (forced) expiration The by depressing the rib cage. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 346 6) The nurse is explaining Kegel exercises to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles. What factors may contribute to a weakening of the pelvic floor muscles? Answer: Aging, multiple births, and decreased estrogen production. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 348, 350 7) A 52-year-old woman states she has been ʺleaking urineʺ during such times as laughing, sneezing, or exercise. The nurse explains this may be caused by what? Answer: Weakening of the pelvic floor muscles. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 350 8) The patient has a stroke and has weakness on his right side. How will the weakness affect his ability to swallow? Answer: patient may have difficulty swallowing related to weakness or paralysis of the suprahyoid The muscles. The suprahyoid muscles form the floor of the oral cavity and are involved in the swallowing process. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 340 16 17 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course ENVIRONMEN 101 taught by Professor Chow during the Spring '11 term at Marquette.

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