Ch 12 - Matching Questions Figure 12.1 Using Figure 12.1,...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Matching Questions Figure 12.1 Using Figure 12.1, match the following: 1) Afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge here and synapse with at least one of its nuclei. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 444; Fig. 12.11 2) Putamen. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.11 3) Anterior horn of lateral ventricle. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434; Fig. 12.11 4) Inferior horn of lateral ventricle. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434; Fig. 12.11 5) Part of the basal nuclei. Answer: B Diff: 1 6) Thalamus. Answer: D Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.11 Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.11 Figure 12.2 Using Figure 12.2, match the following: 7) Pons. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.10 8) Corpus callosum. Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.10 9) Caudate nucleus. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.10 10) Globus pallidus. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.10 11) Thalamus. Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.10 Figure 12.3 Using Figure 12.3, match the following: 12) Site of efferent soma. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472; Fig. 12.31 13) Site of axons and afferent neurons. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474; Fig. 12.31 14) Site of sensory soma. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474; Fig. 12.31 15) Gray commissure. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 472; Fig. 12.31 16) Horn usually containing interneurons. Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472; Fig. 12.31 17) Site containing central canal. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 472; Fig. 12.31 18) Multipolar neurons are common here. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 472; Fig. 12.31 Match the following: 19) Auditory area. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440 20) Primary sensory cortex. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 439: Fig. 12.9 21) Somatic motor cortex. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.9 22) Motor speech area. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.9 23) Premotor area. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 439; Fig. 12.8 24) Visual area. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.8 25) Language/speech comprehension area. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.9 26) Taste (gustatory) area. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440; Fig. 12.9 27) Seat of intelligence, abstract reasoning. Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 439; Fig. 12.8 A) Temporal B) Occipital C) Frontal D) Parietal Match the following: 28) A major relay station for sensory information ascending to primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex. Contains many specialized nuclei. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443; Fig. 12.12 29) This brain area associates experiences necessary for the production of abstract ideas, judgment, and conscience. Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441; Fig. 12.8 30) The axons from this area form the major pyramidal tracts. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 438; Fig. 12.9 31) This area is the main visceral control center of the body. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 446; Fig. 12.12 A) Primary motor cortex B) Prefrontal area C) Thalamus D) Hypothalamus Match the following stages of sleep with their descriptions: 32) The stage when vital signs (blood A) Stage 2 pressure, heart rate, and body temperature) reach their lowest normal B) Stage 4 levels. Answer: B C) Stage 3 Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458; Fig. 12.21 D) REM 33) Indicated by movement of the eyes under the lids; dreaming occurs. E) Stage 1 Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458; Fig. 12.21 34) Theta and delta waves begin to appear. Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 459; Fig. 12.21 35) Very easy to awaken; EEG shows alpha waves; may even deny being asleep. Answer: E Diff: 1 Page Ref: 459; Fig. 12.21 36) Typified by sleep spindles. Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458; Fig. 12.21 37) Begins about 90 minutes after the onset of sleep. Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458; Fig. 12.21 38) Necessary for emotional health; may be neural ʺdebugging.ʺ Answer: D Diff: 3 Page Ref: 459; Fig. 12.21 True/False Questions 1) NREM sleep normally exhibits four distinct stages, which appear to alternate. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 459-460 2) Petit mal seizures found in children generally go away with age. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 457 3) NREM sleep episodes are frequently associated with erection of the penis. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458 4) A flat EEG is a good indication of deep sleep. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 457 5) Theta waves are a brain wave pattern that can be seen during deep sleep and during anesthesia. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456 6) One disorder of the substantia nigra is Parkinsonʹs disease. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 449, 469 7) Cell bodies of the somatic motor neurons of the spinal nerves are located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 472 8) Meningitis is the most accurate term for inflammation of neurons. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 465 9) The spinal cord ends at the level of L1. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 470 10) Cerebrospinal fluid circulates within the ventricles of the brain and in the subarachnoid space outside the brain. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 433-434 11) The terms fainting and syncope describe the same thing. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458 12) The RAS is comprised of specific pathways primarily in the limbic system. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 456 13) Nondeclarative memories preserve the context in which they are learned. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461-462 14) The first obvious sign that the nervous system is forming in the embryo is the thickening of the surface ectoderm to form the neural plate. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 431 15) The left cerebral hemisphere is usually dominant. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441 16) The limbic system acts as our emotional, or affective, brain. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 454 17) The canal connecting the third and fourth ventricles and running through the midbrain is the foramen of Monro. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434 18) Commissural fibers form the corpus striatum. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443 19) A disturbance of posture, muscle tremors at rest, and uncontrolled muscle contraction are all symptoms of damage to the basal nuclei. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443 20) Projection fibers in the brain connect the right and left hemispheres. Answer: FALSE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443 21) Most of the ascending and descending pathways to and from the brain cross over from one side of the body to the other. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 474-475 22) The primary visual cortex contains a map of visual space. Answer: TRUE Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440 23) One functional center found within the medulla oblongata is a respiratory center involved in the control of the rate and depth of breathing. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 451 24) Sorting of sensory information and relaying it to the appropriate cerebral sensory area occurs in the hypothalamus. Answer: FALSE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446 25) Sensory areas of the cortex for the genitals are located deep in the postcentral gyrus. Answer: TRUE Diff: 2 Page Ref: 436, 438 26) Embryonic damage to the mesencephalon could result in improper formation of the midbrain. Answer: TRUE Diff: 3 Page Ref: 433 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The nonspecific ascending pathways ________. A) re evolutionarily newer than the specific pathways a B) eceive inputs from a single type of sensory receptor r C) re involved in the emotional aspects of perception a D) re also called the lemniscal system a Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 475-476 2) The superchiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________. A) ons p B) halamus t C) ypothalamus h D) edulla m Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 446 3) Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________. A) idbrain m B) edulla m C) ons p D) erebrum c Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 450-451 4) The arbor vitae refers to ________. A) erebellar gray matter c B) erebellar white matter c C) he pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum t D) locculonodular nodes f Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 453 5) The brain stem consists of the ________. A) erebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla c B) idbrain, medulla, and pons m C) ons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain p D) idbrain only m Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 447-448 6) The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________. A) refrontal lobe p B) rontal lobe f C) emporal lobe t D) arietal lobe p Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440 7) Spinocerebellar tracts ________. A) erminate in the spinal cord t B) arry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum c C) ive rise to conscious experience of perception g D) re found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord a Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 476-478 8) The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________. A) utside, white matter on the inside, and a dorsal motor root o B) nside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root i C) nside, white matter on the outside, and a dorsal motor root i D) utside, white matter on the inside, and a ventral motor root o Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 470-471 9) The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges? A) rachnoid and epidura a B) rachnoid and pia a C) rachnoid and dura a D) ura and epidura d Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 464-465 10) The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the ________. A) ons p B) edulla m C) idbrain m D) erebrum c Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 451 11) Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________. A) he dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord t B) he ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord t C) he thalamus t D) ympathetic ganglia s Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 472, 474 12) The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________. A) entral fissure c B) ongitudinal fissure l C) arieto-occipital fissure p D) ateral fissure l Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434-436 13) The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our ________. A) motional impact e B) orking memory w C) ecall and personality r D) earning abilities l Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 441 14) A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________. A) ulcus s B) issure f C) yrus g D) urrow f Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434 15) The cerebrospinal fluid ________. A) s secreted by the arachnoid villi i B) nters the four ventricles after filling and circulating through the subarachnoid space e C) s secreted mostly by the ependymal cells lining the brain ventricles i D) s formed mostly by the choroid plexuses i Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 465 16) If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________. A) he spinal cord may be affected t B) he cranial nerves would not form t C) he hindbrain would not be present t D) he telencephalon would cease development t Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 431 17) The central sulcus separates which lobes? A) rontal from parietal f B) arietal from occipital p C) emporal from parietal t D) rontal from temporal f Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434-436 18) Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would be ________. A) nterior spinothalamic a B) eticulospinal r C) ateral spinothalamic l D) osterior spinothalamic p Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 477 19) Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex? A) ell bodies c B) endrites d C) nmyelinated axons u D) iber tracts f Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 436, 438 20) The hypothalamus ________. A) s the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature i B) s an important auditory and visual relay center i C) as the Pulvinar body as part of its structure h D) ediates sensations m Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 446 21) The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________. A) yelinated nerve fibers only m B) nmyelinated nerve fibers only u C) yelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers m D) oma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers s Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 474 22) A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ________. A) ubrospinal r B) estibulospinal v C) ectospinal t D) yramidal p Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 478-479 23) An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in ________. A) araplegia p B) emiplegia h C) uadriplegia q D) pinal shock only s Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 478-479 24) Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________. A) pper motor neurons u B) ower motor neurons l C) pinal nerve roots s D) euromotor junction n Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 478 25) Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________. A) yri g B) ulci s C) issures f D) anglia g Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434 26) The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________. A) ongitudinal fissure l B) ateral sulcus l C) entral sulcus c D) ranial fossa c Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434-436 27) Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________. A) olecular weight of types of neurons m B) ounts of neurons per fiber bundle c C) tructurally distinct cortical areas s D) ates of neural division in embryogenesis r Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 436 28) Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________. A) yramidal and corticospinal p B) xtrapyramidal and rubrospinal e C) egmental and nigrostriatal s D) upplementary and cerebellar-pontine s Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 478 29) An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________. A) alcarine cortex c B) rimary visual area p C) isual association area v D) ateral geniculate body l Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440 30) Brocaʹs area ________. A) orresponds to Brodmannʹs area 8 c B) s usually found in the right hemisphere i C) erves the recognition of complex objects s D) s considered a motor speech area i Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 439 31) The function of commissures is to connect ________. A) djacent areas of gray matter within a cerebral hemisphere a B) orresponding areas of the two hemispheres c C) reas of cortex with lower centers a D) yramidal cells with corresponding cerebellar cells p Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443 32) The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________. A) etabolic waste such as urea m B) utrients such as glucose n C) lcohol a D) nesthetics a Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 467 33) Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei? A) utamen p B) entiform nucleus l C) lobus pallidus g D) ubstantia nigra s Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 449 34) All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________. A) ippocampus h B) ingulate gyrus c C) mygdaloid nucleus a D) audate nucleus c Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 454-455 35) Which of the following is not a midbrain structure? A) hird ventricle t B) erebral peduncles c C) orpora quadrigemina c D) ed nucleus r Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 448-449 36) The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called ________. A) onsolidation c B) utomatic memory a C) ong-term memory l D) ehearsal r Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 460-461 37) An electroencephalogram ________. A) s a record of total body electrical activity i B) ndicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz i C) ndicates an average amplitude of 20-100 V i D) an only detect abnormal electrical activity c Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456 38) The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the cerebral cortex is the ________. A) halamus t B) eticular formation r C) yramids p D) imbic system l Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 455-456 39) Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid? A) lucose g B) ed blood cells r C) otassium p D) rotein p Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 465 40) REM sleep is associated with ________. A) ecreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure d B) ecreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex d C) emporary skeletal muscle paralysis, except for the extrinsic eye muscles t D) ecreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex d Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458-459 41) Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12. You would expect to find all of the following except ________. A) aralysis of the lower extremities p B) oss of sensation below the level of injury l C) lurred speech s D) erspiration in the affected area p Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 478-479 42) Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________. A) athologic sleep p B) oss of body temperature control l C) roduction of excessive quantities of urine p D) oss of proprioception l Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446 43) White matter of the spinal cord ________. A) s composed of myelinated fibers only i B) scends to higher PNS centers a C) as afferent fibers carrying impulses from peripheral sensory receptors h D) ontains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts c Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 474-475 44) Which statement about aging is most accurate? A) he brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life. T B) ynaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after the age of 35. S C) espite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning throughout life. D D) earning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial proliferation. L Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 481 45) Which association is most accurate? A) ensory-anterior s B) otor-medial m C) ensory-medial s D) otor-anterior m Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 438-439 46) Brain wave amplitude ________. A) eflects the number of neurons firing synchronously r B) s an average of about 1 V i C) esults from subtraction of delta waves from theta waves r D) s the measure of activity of specific individual neurons i Answer: A Diff: 2 Page Ref: 456-457 47) Declarative memory is not stored in the ________. A) ippocampus h B) mygdala a C) halamus t D) ammillary body m Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461 48) Huntingtonʹs disease ________. A) egins to appear at ages 10 to 15 b B) as symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease h C) sually subsides by ages 35 to 40 u D) ay be a result of a defective 26th chromosome m Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 469-470 49) The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________. A) ace recognition f B) act learning f C) patial learning s D) kill learning s Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461-462 50) Storing information in long-term memory ________. A) epends on the remaining capacity of long-term memory d B) s interfered with by emotional arousal i C) s facilitated by the release of norepinephrine i D) s always dependent on the formation of conscious impressions i Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 51) Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of postural muscles are the ________. A) ed nuclei r B) estibular nuclei v C) eticular nuclei r D) uperior colliculi s Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 438-440 52) Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory? A) ippocampus h B) edulla m C) mygdala a D) refrontal cortex p Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462-463 53) The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________. A) lfactory cortex o B) usatory cortex g C) estibular cortex v D) isceral sensory area v Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 440 54) Which statement about coma is true? A) oma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time. C B) uring coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state. D C) oma is neurologically identical to syncope. C D) oma is rarely caused by damage to brain stem structures. C Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 458 55) Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of ________. A) untingtonʹs disease H B) arkinsonʹs disease P C) erebellar disease c D) pinal cord disease s Answer: B Diff: 1 Page Ref: 469 56) Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury? A) ontusion c B) oncussion c C) emorrhage h D) welling s Answer: B Diff: 2 Page Ref: 468 57) Declarative memory ________. A) s the ability to learn specific information i B) s best remembered in the doing i C) s hard to unlearn when learned once i D) sually involves motor skills u Answer: A Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 58) Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)? A) ostcentral gyrus p B) ustatory cortex g C) ed nuclei r D) ernickeʹs area W Answer: C Diff: 3 Page Ref: 449 59) Which statement is not true? A) leep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again in old age. S B) alf of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep. H C) en-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night. T D) tage 4 sleep increases in old age. S Answer: D Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461 60) Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate? A) uring seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked. D B) etit mal epilepsy typically begins in adolescence and is often severely disabling. P C) pilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke, infection, and E tumor. D) he aura in grand mal epilepsy typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness. T Answer: C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 457 61) White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all ofthe following locations, with the exception of the ________. A) orpus callosum c B) erebral cortex c C) orticospinal tracts c D) uter surface of the spinal cord o Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 436 62) Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in the ________. A) pinal cord s B) edulla m C) halamus t D) omatosensory cortex s Answer: C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 443, 474 63) Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________. A) pinal cord s B) remotor cortex p C) rimary motor cortex p D) ubrospinal tracts r Answer: B Diff: 3 Page Ref: 439 64) ________ waves are not normal for adults but are common for children. A) lpha A B) eta B C) elta D D) heta T Answer: D Diff: 1 Page Ref: 456 Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions 1) The fourth ventricle is continuous with the ________ of the spinal cord. Answer: central canal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 434 2) The large tract that connects the right and left sides of the brain is called the ________. Answer: corpus callosum Diff: 2 Page Ref: 443 3) The ________ is a conduction pathway between higher and lower brain centers and houses nuclei for cranial nerves V-VII. Answer: pons Diff: 2 Page Ref: 449-450 4) The infundibulum connects the hypothalamus to the ________. Answer: pituitary gland Diff: 2 Page Ref: 446 5) The ________ are valvelike and protrude externally through the dura mater to absorb cerebrospinal fluid into venous blood. Answer: arachnoid villi Diff: 1 Page Ref: 464-465 6) Sensory neurons enter the spinal cord via the ________ horn. Answer: dorsal Diff: 1 Page Ref: 471-472 7) ________ memory requires practice, and is remembered by doing. Answer: Skill Diff: 1 Page Ref: 461 8) The ________ includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus. Answer: diencephalon Diff: 2 Page Ref: 432-433 9) The two longitudinal ridges on the medulla oblongata where many descending fibers cross over are called the ________. Answer: pyramids Diff: 2 Page Ref: 451 10) The largest nuclear mass in the midbrain is the ________. Answer: substantia nigra Diff: 3 Page Ref: 449 11) In stage 3 sleep, ________ and ________ waves appear. Answer: theta; delta Diff: 2 Page Ref: 459 12) The ________ is the main switch station for memory; if the right and left areas are damaged, the past is lost. Answer: amygdala Diff: 2 Page Ref: 461 13) ________ rhythm is a 24-hour cycle of sleep and wakefulness. Answer: Circadian Diff: 1 Page Ref: 459 14) ________ is a temporary cessation of breathing during sleep found most commonly in the elderly. Answer: Sleep apnea Diff: 2 Page Ref: 460 15) Describe the cause of hydrocephalus and explain why this condition is much more serious in adults than in newborns. Answer: Hydrocephaly refers to a blockage of the normal circulation and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) throughout the meninges and ventricles. If CSF is allowed to accumulate, excessive pressure could be exerted on the brain. In newborns, the fontanels allow the skull to enlarge, while in adults, the cranial bones are fused and no expansion is possible. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 466-467 16) Which brain areas lack a blood-brain barrier, and what purpose does this absence serve? Answer: blood-brain barrier is absent around the vomiting center of the brain stem, so that it can monitor The the blood for poisonous substances. It is also absent around the hypothalamus, so that it can monitor the chemical composition of the blood and adjust water balance and other factors. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 467 17) What is the importance of the fact that the outer portion of the cerebral hemispheres is convoluted? Answer: cerebral cortex is only 2-4 mm thick; however, the convolutions effectively triple the cortical The surface area. As a result, the cortex accounts for 40% of the total brain mass and functions in all conscious activity, including movement, sensory perception, thinking, and memory. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 436 18) What is the cauda equina and why is it given this name? Answer: cauda equina is a collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal and is given The this name because of its resemblance to a horseʹs tail. This arrangement reflects the different rates of growth between the vertebral column and spinal cord. Because the column grows more rapidly than the cord, the lower nerves must ʺchaseʺ their exit points inferiorly, thus forming the cauda equina. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 471 19) Describe the role of the reticular activating system in cortical arousal and stimulation. Answer: reticular activating system (RAS) appears to mediate the alertness state of the cerebral cortex. The The thalamus, hypothalamus, and other areas such as the brain stem appear to be interconnected with the RAS. The hypothalamus seems to be the structure responsible for the actual timing of the sleep-wake cycle. The primary neurotransmitter involved is serotonin. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 455-456 20) Six-year-old Jimmy is confined to a wheelchair. He frequently drools and his limbs hang limply in strange angular positions. His diagnosis is cerebral palsy. Name several (possible) causes of cerebral palsy. Answer: Cerebral palsy may be due to a lack of oxygen at birth, or to a viral infection, excessive smoking by the mother, radiation, drugs, or alcohol. The disorder is a neuromuscular disability in which the voluntary muscles are poorly controlled or paralyzed. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 481 21) Describe the main ideas of the holistic processing school of thought, relative to consciousness. Answer: Holistic processing involves many lines of reasoning that suppose that: (1) consciousness involves simultaneous activity of large areas of the cerebral cortex; (2) consciousness is superimposed on other types of neural activity; and (3) consciousness is totally interconnected. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 457-458 22) Differentiate clearly between short-term and long-term memory. Answer: Short-term memory (STM) is a fleeting memory of events that one is continuously exposed to, and seems to be limited to 7 or 8 chunks of information at a time. Long-term memory (LTM) is semipermanent storage of information that involves the transfer of data from STM banks to LTM banks based on several factors such as rehearsal, emotional state, and association. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 460-461 23) How do scientists hope the discovery of drugs such as NMDA antagonists and calcium channel blockers will improve the outlook for stroke patients? Answer: After a stroke, neurons deprived of oxygen release large amounts of glutamate. This acts as an excitotoxin on receptors, causing (among other things) calcium influx. These changes result in damage to surrounding healthy cells, which then release additional glutamate. Scientists hope that rapid administration of NMDA antagonists or calcium channel blockers will stop the chain reaction and result in the destruction of much less tissue. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 468-469 24) What seven areas of the body is the hypothalamus in control of? Answer: ANS. 1. 2. Center of emotional responses. 3. Body temperature regulation. 4. Regulation of food intake. 5. Regulation of water balance and thirst. 6. Regulation of the sleep-wake cycles. 7. Control of the endocrine functions. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 446-447 25) What is the limbic system? Answer: is an area of the brain that is in control of our emotions, such as fear, anger, love, hate, etc. It can This be acted upon by smell (the smell of a gas, perfume, dead animals), memories, taste, sight, and selfwill. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 454-455 Clinical Questions 1) Mrs. Sagalov has recently been diagnosed with Alzheimerʹs disease. What clinical symptoms is she likely to show, and what would probably be seen if her brain were examined? Answer: Mrs. Sagalov is likely to show increasing cognitive deficits, including difficulties with memory and attention, and personality changes such as irritability, moodiness, and confusion. Her brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, is likely to show senile plaques (clumps of cells and fibers around a protein core) and neurofibrillary tangles (twisted fibers within neuron cell bodies). Diff: 3 Page Ref: 469 2) A patient was admitted to the rehabilitation unit five days after having a stroke. The nurse assesses his muscle strength and determines that he has right-sided weakness. Based on this assessment data, what part of the brain was injured? Answer: Damage to localized areas of the primary motor cortex paralyzes the body muscles controlled by these areas. If the stroke is in the left hemisphere, the right side of the body will be weak or paralyzed. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 438-439 3) A patient was admitted to the medical/surgical unit with a stroke that affected the motor neurons in the pyramidal pathway. This affected the loss of voluntary movement to his left side. What other problems would the patient experience? Answer: patient may have difficulty swallowing because of weakness to the mouth or throat muscles. The The patient may also experience problems with urinary incontinence. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 438 4) Death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis usually results from respiratory infection secondary to compromised respiratory function. Explain why. Answer: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrigʹs disease, is a rare neuromuscular disease that involves progressive destruction of the ventral horn motor neurons and fibers of the pyramidal tract. As the disease progresses, the sufferer loses the ability to speak, swallow, and breathe. Because the lungs have difficulty fully expanding, secretions may develop, causing respiratory infection. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 481 5) Explain why heparin is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombotic strokes but contraindicated in a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Answer: most common cause of a stroke is a blockage of a cerebral artery by a clot. Heparin would keep The more clots from forming. It would be contraindicated in a subarachnoid hemorrhage because it would not be effective in treating the bleeding from ruptured vessels. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 468 6) An 86-year-old patient with Alzheimerʹs disease was admitted to the hospital with dehydration. Her daughter states that her mother has been very confused and combative lately. Explain why the patient developed dehydration. Answer: of the simplest mechanisms for maintaining fluid balance is the thirst mechanism. Normally, One when a person is thirsty, he or she drinks because the thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated. In this patientʹs confused and combative state, she is probably refusing or forgetting to eat or drink, thereby developing dehydration. Diff: 3 Page Ref: 469 7) The location and arrangement of the arteries supplying the hippocampus make it particularly vulnerable to injury. How would memory be affected if the hippocampus suffered deterioration? Answer: hippocampus oversees the circuitry for learning and remembering spatial relationships. In other The words, it acts as a switchboard, receiving and sorting information, helping to turn that information into a memory, and forwarding it to other parts of the brain. Without the help of the hippocampus we might learn, but we wouldnʹt remember. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 462 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/08/2011 for the course ENVIRONMEN 101 taught by Professor Chow during the Spring '11 term at Marquette.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online