Physical Geology 101-3
Exam #3 Study Guide
The purpose of this study guide is to help you focus your review of the material we’ve
covered since Exam II. This it is not intended to be your only form of review.
Check BB for
review session date and times.
Minerals Resources (522-541)
-Review the Mineral Resource Discussion Questions
( Questions & Answer Key is
Posted on BB)
▪ Be able to differentiate between metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources and identify
examples of each.
Metallic- rocks containing gold, copper, aluminum, iron, etc. Metals are opaque, shiny,
smooth solids that can conduct electricity and can be bent, drawn into wire, or hammered
into thin sheets. They look and behave quite differently from wood, plastic, or rock
because, unlike in other substances, the atoms that make up metals are held together by
metallic bonds, meaning that the outer electrons flow from atom to atom fairly easily.
Nonmetallic- Industrial minerals used by society from the ground. We use them for things
like roadbeds, buildings, chemicals for fertilizers, gypsum in drywall, salt in salt shakers,
and sand used to make glass.
Examples include Dimension Stone (intact slabs and blocks of granite or
marble cut from quarries) and Portland Cement (mix of limestone and
Note that a quarry provides rock whereas a mine supplies ore
▪ Be able to identify the importance of each of the 3 types of Metallic Minerals (Native,
Native metals- consist only of metal atoms, and thus look and behave like a metal.
Eventually, because native metals are rare and durable, people began to use them as
money. Gold used as currency, copper could be mixed with tin to produce bronze whose
strength exceeds that of either metal alone (used for swords), iron used to make steel
when mixed with chromium. Most notable native metals are copper, silver, gold, and
Precious metals- Metals like gold, silver, and platinum that have high value
Base metals- Metals that are mined, but not considered precious. Examples include
copper, lead, zinc, and tin. Importance is the difference in price.
▪ Be able to distinguish between ductile and malleable—two properties of metallic minerals.
Ductile- a mechanical property that describes the extent in which solid materials can be
plastically deformed without fracture. Ductility specifically refers to a material's ability to
deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be
stretched into a wire.
Malleable- refers to a material's ability to deform under compressive stress; this is often
characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet by hammering or rolling.
Ductility and malleability do not always correlate with each other; for instance, gold is