Study guide #4

Study guide #4 - Topic #1: Faulting, Folding, &...

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Topic #1: Faulting, Folding, & Mountain Building (362-397) ▪ Be able to define orogenesis. Process in which mountains are constructed by tectonic plate interactions ▪ Be able to distinguish between ductile and brittle deformation and explain the factors that control rock behavior. Brittle deformation-rocks break by fracturing, occurs in the shallow crust Ductile deformation-rocks deform by flow and folding but do not break, deeper crust ▪ Be able to differentiate between stress and strain. Stress is the force applied across an area Strain is the amount of deformation that an object experiences compared to its original size and shape ▪ Be able to explain the 3 types of stress. Compression-squeezing (greater stress in one direction), thickens material Tension-pull apart, tends to thin material Shear-blocks of rock sliding past one another, distorts shape of rock and often results in faulting ▪ Be able to differentiate among folds, faults, and joints. Joints-planar rock fractures without offset o Result from tensional tectonic stresses Faults-planar fractures offset by movement across o Fracture in which sliding occurs Folds-layered rocks may be deformed into curves called folds ▪ Be able to identify and explain the relative motion that is associated the normal, reverse, thrust, & strike-slip faults. Normal fault-caused by tension stress o Hanging-wall block moves down the slope of the fault Reverse fault-caused by compression stress o Hanging-wall block moves up the slope of the fault Thrust fault-caused by compression stress o Slope (dip) of less than 35 degrees Strike-slip faults-caused by shear stress o One block slides past another parallel to the strike line --Also know what a fault system is and the structures that they can produce! -Horsts & Graben, Basin & Range Formations Faults commonly occur in groups called fault systems o Due to regional stresses that create many similar faults o Thrust fault systems stack fault blocks on top of each other, compression o Normal fault systems slide away from one another creating basins and ranges, ▪ Be able to explain, identify, and describe anticlines, synclines, monoclines as well as basins and domes. Anticline-arch-like fold; limbs dip away from the hinge Syncline-trough-like fold; limbs dip toward the hinge Monocline-fold like a carpet draped over a stairstep
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▪ Be able to explain how orogenesis can lead to the formation of sedimentary, metamorphic, & igneous rocks. Igneous rocks-intrusive and extrusive
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Study guide #4 - Topic #1: Faulting, Folding, &...

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