Lecture 11 Notes - SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT I was not able to...

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Feb 14 2007 SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT: I was not able to make it down from up north for class on Valentines day, therefore, I missed lecture. I have, however, written up a summary for you to help explain the function of your kidneys. Read through these notes and work through the work sheet I’ve included. You should also read through Randy’s power points. The Excretory System: How Wastes Leave My Body Human Excretory System - the system consists of a pair of kidneys and ureters, a urinary bladder, the urethra, and the blood vessels of the renal circuit. The kidney consists of an outer cortex, an inner medulla, and a renal pelvis. The cortex contains the filtering units called nephrons . The nephron is composed of a spherical capsule called the Bowman's capsule followed by a long tubule. The renal artery branches into smaller arterioles; each arteriole (called an afferent or incoming arteriole) enters the Bowman's capsule and branches to form a structure called the glomerulus (a capillary bed composed only of artery); the arteriole leaving the capsule is called the efferent arteriole; this branches into the peritubular capillaries, a fine network of arteries and veins covering the rest of the nephron; this drains into the renal vein. The Bowman's capsule leads to the proximal convoluted tubule which leads to a section of the nephron called the loop of Henle , then the distal convoluted tubule and finally to the collecting duct. Note: the afferent arteriole forms a passing connection with the distal convoluted tubule called the juxtaglomerular complex, important in sodium re-absorption. The collecting duct drains to the renal pelvis (note: there are thousands of nephrons in each kidney ) where urine collects. The urine then drains down the ureter to the urinary bladder for temporary storage. It finally passes out of the body through the urethra.
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